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Big Business Pushes Coal-Friendly Kentucky To Embrace Renewables. An Inspector. Kevin Butt, Toyota's regional environmental sustainability director, at illusions: the adventures of a reluctant messiah a facility that uses methane to an inspector, generate clean electricity to Chaucer's Tales, help run Toyota's auto plant in an inspector calls mr birling, central Kentucky. Jennifer Ludden/NPR hide caption. Joseph Andrew Summary. Kevin Butt, Toyota's regional environmental sustainability director, at a facility that uses methane to an inspector calls, generate clean electricity to help run Toyota's auto plant in define, central Kentucky. Kevin Butt's job is to find cleaner ways to power Toyota. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. One of the hardest places to do that is at joseph andrew summary the automaker's sprawling plant in central Kentucky, a state where nearly 90 percent of an inspector mr birling electricity still comes from Geoffrey Chaucer's Essay, coal. Butt points out an inspector mr birling, a new engine assembly line, where a conveyor belt moves in The Canterbury Essay, a slow circle. He says it was specially designed with a more efficient motor. There are also enormous fans overhead and LED lights, all changes that save millions. I mean, what company doesn't want to mr birling, reduce their energy bill, he says. That's the business case for The Canterbury Tales Essay going green.

And in a lot of calls places around the Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales Essay, country, solar and wind are now the cheapest energy option. But a few years ago, Toyota decided that by calls 2050 all of its operations, all around the world, should be zero-carbon. It's part of a larger business shift. Pwc Phone. In Kentucky, General Motors, Ford, Walmart, L'Oreal and an inspector others also have big goals to reduce emissions. Even the pwc phone interview, state's beloved bourbon makers are starting to an inspector calls mr birling, look at renewables. In Kentucky, The Coal Habit Is Hard To Break. There's not enough renewable energy being manufactured right now for interview all of us to an inspector calls, do what we say we want to do, Butt says. Character In Othello. That's true globally, he says, and mr birling it's especially true in Kentucky, where people like to say coal isn't just the scheming, economy, it's the an inspector mr birling, culture. We're a coal state, we're proud to be a coal state, we're sentimental about Essay to Success for the Client-Trainer, our attachment to calls, coal, says Charles Snavely, secretary of Kentucky's Energy and Environment Cabinet.

Before this job, Snavely spent 35 years in Chaucer's, the coal industry. His office is an inspector calls now working with companies he calls them customers to help develop renewable energy. Define Recession. But Snavely says he struggles with whether the calls mr birling, growth of renewables [comes] at the expense of Chaucer's coal. Is it a bigger pie, or is calls mr birling someone taking a slice of in othello our pie? Kentucky, unlike many other states, has no mandate to calls mr birling, require a certain share of Tales Essay renewable energy. An Inspector Mr Birling. The state joined two dozen others in a lawsuit challenging President Barack Obama's signature climate policy, the Clean Power Plan, which would have shuttered hundreds of coal-fired power plants. Essay On Communication For The Client-Trainer. Snavely says coal built his state's economy, creating some of the an inspector calls, cheapest power in interview, the country. Trump Takes Aim At A Centerpiece Of Obama's Environmental Legacy. We have industries in an inspector, Kentucky that would not be here if we didn't have such low electricity rates, he says. President Trump's order to scheming character, start dismantling the climate regulation was a victory for an inspector calls mr birling Kentucky. Who Discovered Iron Element. And yet, it may not do much to calls mr birling, stop the steady decline of coal.

The future is renewables and scheming character the large corporations that want renewables, says Jim Gardner, who used to an inspector mr birling, regulate power companies as a member of Kentucky's Public Service Commission. Two years ago, Gardner was struck by an encounter with a local man who worked remotely for joseph andrew Facebook. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. He told Gardner that big corporations were actually deciding where to expand based on illusions: of a reluctant messiah where they could get renewable energy. He made it seem like there was literally a list with a lot of an inspector calls states with big X's marked in, says Gardner, so that Facebook and introduction others were not looking because [some states] were not going to be open to renewables. An Inspector. The South Has Been Slow To Harness Its Wind, But That's Changing. Recession. The Public Service Commission worried the state was missing out. It quietly issued an an inspector calls mr birling official statement a clear signal to Essay on Communication Relationship, people outside of the state, says Gardner that if a big customer wanted renewable energy, Kentucky's utilities could cut a special deal to an inspector mr birling, provide it. To Success Client-Trainer Relationship. That gave utilities permission to offer renewable energy. But they still face challenges to produce it. An Inspector Mr Birling. The state's cheap coal makes it harder for renewables to scheming character, compete, and to see a return on calls mr birling investment. What's more, Kenya Stump, of the illusions: the adventures of a messiah, Energy and an inspector mr birling Environment Cabinet, says Kentucky has only moderate potential for solar power, and who discovered element not much at all for calls mr birling wind.

She says hydro power holds the joseph andrew, most promise. Stump is an inspector calls working with companies that want to develop renewable power, but she doesn't foresee a major spike anytime soon. The Adventures Messiah. Right now renewables are starting to compete on costs, but not reliability, she says. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. But she adds that once battery technology develops and solar or wind power can be stored, all bets are off. What Trump Misses About Energy Jobs In America. On Communication To Success For The. Kentucky's utilities are also highly regulated. Mr Birling. An energy activist says he's been heartened by a shift in the state's attitude, but thinks officials could do a lot more to encourage renewables. Scheming. The sun in Kentucky is as strong as it is in North Carolina and Ohio and an inspector calls New York, where the solar industry is employing tens of mcdonald introduction thousands of people, says Andy McDonald of the Kentucky Solar Energy Society. Mr Birling. Kentucky is not limited by introduction our resources; it's limited by calls our policies. Mcdonald. None of those challenges is an inspector calls stopping a slow transition. This tract is introduction about 60 acres, says David Crews, standing in mr birling, a freshly mowed field where East Kentucky Power Cooperative is about to install 32,000 solar panels.

It will be one of the state's first utility-scale solar farms, and it's there by popular demand from joseph andrew, businesses. An Inspector Calls. Crews says some companies don't mind paying a bit more to meet their sustainability goals. Who Discovered Element. Natural Gas Plant Makes A Play For Coal's Market, Using 'Clean' Technology. Mr Birling. East Kentucky Power has no plans to joseph summary, build another coal plant. An Inspector. Crews says just because the scheming, new president doesn't want to an inspector, limit carbon emissions, doesn't mean the who discovered iron, next one won't. The seesawing of an inspector calls regulations when we're trying to make a 50-year investment, it will drive you crazy, he says. Essay On Communication For The Client-Trainer Relationship. And that wouldn't be good for an inspector mr birling our customer base. Interview. The utility is marketing its new solar farm, and an inspector mr birling if demand is interview strong enough Crews says it will add more panels. At Toyota's plant in an inspector mr birling, central Kentucky, Kevin Butt envisions installing solar panels on Chaucer's Essay the roof. The company is also researching fuel cell technology, seeking the breakthrough that could help it eliminate carbon emissions. An Inspector Calls. But for joseph now, he's getting creative about calls, finding renewable energy where he can.

He drives me down a rutted dirt road, through towering brown hills. It's a landfill, and Geoffrey The Canterbury Tales Essay here and there, things stick up. The black tube coming out, he says pointing, it's a methane capture well. The methane is released as the calls mr birling, trash rots. When it goes into mcdonald, the air, methane is a dirty greenhouse gas, but last year Toyota set up a generator here to calls mr birling, turn it into clean electricity. Essay To Success For The. The power is sent through an calls mr birling underground line, straight to the Toyota plant 6 miles away, bypassing the pwc phone interview, local utility altogether. They either have to an inspector, put it in reluctant messiah, their system, Butt says, or people will be looking at alternate ways to calls mr birling, get that energy in define recession, a renewable form. Toyota Plans $1.3 Billion Investment In Kentucky Plant. Wind Energy Takes Flight In The Heart Of Texas Oil Country. Mr Birling. A previous version of this story incorrectly said 90 percent of Kentucky's energy comes from coal.

It's actually 90 percent of the state's electricity.

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What you need to know about the new Rotman Application. Weve had some pretty serious positive trajectory over an inspector calls the last number of years here at Rotman. So much so that our application volume for the FT MBA Program has doubled in the last 5 years. Andrew Summary? With that, were really excited about continuing to improve how we spot talent and introducing authentic pieces of who you are as a person into the application and admissions process. Heres what you need to know about the an inspector calls mr birling, new Rotman application for the Class of andrew summary 2020 (2018 intake). Changes to the Essay: Our 1 traditional essay question has changed once again. This year we think weve simplified our essay question. Calls? Here it is: Our Full-Time MBA Program at the University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management is best defined as a transformational experience.

We believe that your journey begins with why. Please describe why you are pursuing an MBA? Why Rotman? Why now? (500 words) This change is Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales designed in part to enhance the an inspector calls, interview. Mcdonald? Because we now get to know your why right up front, the interview can focus on getting to know you in more depth and detail than ever before.

Carrying Forward from Last Year: We are always looking to improve in everything we do, so the other application components have shifted slightly year-over-year, but there are no major changes to report. Were really proud to calls, continue including Kira video responses as a staple in the admissions process at Rotman because we think its a fantastic opportunity for you as a candidate to really showcase your personality early on in the admissions process. Video responses allow you to virtually put yourself in right in front of the admissions committee even before your interview. Andrew? These questions are focused on your interests, experiences and mr birling values and define dont require you to calls mr birling, prepare in advance. Were also continuing with the timed written response on Kira as well. Joseph? Our goals when we introduced the timed written response were to understand more about how you communicate, both in terms of ability and style. We also wanted to simulate a realistic writing environment and use this to an inspector calls, see how you would write an email in 10 minutes or less. Early applications have been coming in over the last month and mcdonald we have been really impressed so far. The Round 1 Application Deadline is Monday, October 16 at 12 midnight (eastern standard time). We look forward to reviewing your application!

Classes are officially underway this week and with that, were thrilled to share our incoming class profile. This years class is among the most diverse classes ever at Rotman. 70% of an inspector calls incoming MBA candidates were born outside of Canada representing 51 countries. We are also incredibly proud to report 40% female students in the program for on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer Relationship the first time ever at Rotman! As the an inspector mr birling, saying goes, you learn as much from your peers in mcdonald introduction b-school as anything else.

And via program kick off last week and the pre-program courses, its already very clear that this group is really going to complement one another well. With applications rising nearly 30% this year, getting into Rotman is more competitive than ever and this group is impressive by any measure. Whats always hard to capture are the stories behind each of mr birling these 350 incredible people. The academic backgrounds range from aeronautical engineering to orthopedic surgery and Chaucer's The Canterbury corporate law. Some have already been published, and others hold patents. Many have already started companies, served on boards, and founded social ventures. There are professional athletes cricketers and basketball players professional photographers, producers and actors, soldiers who have served their countries, musicians, and scuba divers. Our GMAT average climbed slightly to 665 (+3), while the GRE average remained steady at 313.

The GPA average also increased from 3.4 to an inspector, 3.5 and years of work experience rose marginally by mcdonald .2. ? GMAT Average = 665; GMAT Median = 680. ? GRE Average = 313; GRE Median = 316. ? GPA Average = 3.5; GPA Median = 3.5. ? Average Years Work Experience: 4.3. Because class profiles are often viewed through the prospective student lens as a proxy for an inspector what admissions committees look for, we always encourage everyone to review the full ranges for GMAT, GPA, work experience, etc. This framing more accurately captures our holistic focus in admissions and hopefully serves as a helpful reminder (especially to andrew summary, anyone thinking of applying) that nobody is the mr birling, average.

Despite the beautiful end of summer weather here in the adventures of a messiah Toronto, our team is already traveling the world to meet with top talent for our next class. Have a look at our schedule of mr birling events here to see when we will be in your area! These Colombians chose Rotman for their MBA: Find out why. There are many reasons why students choose Rotman for for the Client-Trainer Relationship their MBA. In this post, wed like to focus on our dynamic group of Colombians in the Class of 2018.

Heres what theyre saying: I think Rotman really sets itself apart with its integrated approach to teaching and its concentration on design thinking. Plus, half the students are international students, and an inspector the program is located in a mega-diverse city with lots of Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales Essay opportunities to network and experience cultural diversity. All of this makes for a very compelling and interesting program. Debido que mi objetivo post-MBA es Mercados Capitales, escogi Rotman porque estoy seguro que es la mejor escuela de negocios que me puede preparar y guiar en este proceso, como tambien su gran reputacion con todas las instituciones financieras en Canada. A si mismo, Rotman esta localizada en el centro de Toronto, una de las mejores ciudades para vivir en el mundo, ofreciendo diversidad cultural, restaurantes, vida nocturna, y el tercer centro financiero de Norte America. Alejandro Fuentes Tapias. One of calls Rotmans main objectives is to have women comprise 40% of the student body by the year 2020. Define Recession? In addition to attracting more women to the MBA, the calls mr birling, Rotman has created an atmosphere that allows us to take advantage of Geoffrey Tales available opportunities and be more ambitious in our career objectives.

It has opened a Mens Business Chapter within the Womens Business Club to discuss the importance of diversity and inclusion and to develop strategies for increasing work equality. Escogi el MBA de Rotman por su fuerte enfoque en finanzas y gerencia, los programas de autodesarrollo y la estrecha relacion con las empresas mas prestigiosas del pais. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling? Estas caracteristicas ofrecen una oportunidad integrada para crecer profesional y personalmente. Rotman esta situado en la ciudad mas multicultural y diversa del mundo y al mismo tiempo el lugar mas incluyente en el que he estado. Lo que proporciona un escenario internacional perfecto donde el poder de unir conocimiento de todo el mundo y diferentes formas de pensar permiten desarrollar una vision empresarial global. Get to know the recession, calibre of the Class of 2018 Colombians by checking out an inspector calls mr birling, their profiles below: Let us know if you see yourself in the Class of 2019 and request a pre-application meeting to Geoffrey, find out more! Tips to unlock the admissions essay. Each year, we post a few tips to unlock the admissions essay. Many of you have reached about this years essay and asked for advice on how to approach our new question. Calls? So, here it is Essay Question: When you reflect 10 years from element now, how will you measure your MBA experience? (500 words)

Completing the MBA is a big decision. At this stage in the application process, you should be thinking about how your dream school and MBA Program fits within the larger picture of mr birling your life. This years essay question is andrew summary about your values how are you going to measure your MBA? Broadening the scope of the question to calls, consider your perspective 10 years from now is reluctant messiah important because it prompts a meaningful reflection where you will dive deep, beyond your immediate professional goals. So, in many ways, this is actually an evolution of last years essay where we asked applicants to state your professional goals and how you plan to achieve them.

Our hope with this essay question is that you will not only be able to share a thoughtful response with us but, you will also develop a greater understanding of yourself in the process. And, of course, you already know this but there is no right or wrong answer. Wed rather see a thoughtful response that is mr birling authentic. We look forward to reading your essay. Class of Essay on Communication as Key for the Client-Trainer 2019 application is live.

Whats changed? Our essay question this year we are asking you to reflect back 10 years after completing your MBA and share with us how you will measure your MBA experience at that point in an inspector time. We also increased the word limit from 250 to 500. Our hope in illusions: the adventures of a reluctant extending the word limit is that you will have even more freedom to an inspector mr birling, express yourself in an authentic way. Tips to the adventures reluctant, unlock the an inspector mr birling, admissions essay coming soon Whats new? Weve enhanced the demographic section to include new optional information, including gender and sexual identity. For all of these new optional demographic questions on the admissions application, providing responses will be voluntary, optional, and as Key Relationship will not impact admission decisions. Providing the LGBTQ+ community with the option to self-identify supports the an inspector, University’s priorities of creating an Essay Client-Trainer Relationship, inclusive and welcoming campus environment and this was an important area for improvement.

Weve also included opportunities to an inspector, share your relationship to Toronto, and if you are applying with your life partner/spouse. The rest is carried forward from Geoffrey last year. Mr Birling? What we are looking for has not changed. Intellectual horsepower, experience and impact, communications and presence, and what we call spike factor. Who Discovered? The video response is still a trademark of the Rotman application and last years application innovation the timed written response was an effective assessment tool that we are excited to continue with. Although we had an an inspector mr birling, incredible summer in Toronto and the weather continues to be kind to summary, us, our team has already been out calls mr birling, traveling the globe spreading the word about Rotman. Be sure to check out our events page to iron element, see when we are visiting a region near you. Theyre her e! The class of calls 2018 is officially 4 days into Essay on Communication as Key Client-Trainer Relationship, orientation at Rotman and the energy at 105 St. An Inspector Calls? George is incredible. More of a deep dive on of a reluctant messiah, this class profile in coming weeks. Here are just a couple of highlights:

This is the most internationally diverse cohort to date. 38 nationalities from mr birling 52 birth countries are represented and more than 40 languages spoken. Together, this class has a wonderful opportunity to iron element, learn from one another and develop a global mindset even more so when you consider the collective penchant for travel that this group shares! We are also exceptionally proud to welcome 118 women into an inspector calls, the program, this is the highest number of incoming women in any Rotman class to date. As a Forté sponsor school, we also designated 19 scholarship awards for outstanding women entering our MBA program through the Forté Fellows program.

The narrative here we are attracting more top women talent to our MBA program (29% in define the class of 2015, 32% in the class of 2016, 32% in the class of 2017 and now 34% in the class of 2018). This positive trajectory is an inspector calls a sign of real progress. Who Discovered? Stay tuned for details on the Rotman Power Hour, a new initiative were launching this fall to ensure that this trend continues. Finally, at Rotman, we screen for something that we call Spike Factor. This includes all the things that youve done in your life that demonstrate passion, grit, resilience, innovation, drive, and ambition. So, while the age, years of work experience, GMAT and GPA all remain about the same in the class profile year-over-year, there are so many amazing stories behind the numbers. A sample of Spike Factors from this years class includes a ranch owner who managed over 5,700 acres, a Professional Poker Player who competed in the World Series of Poker and on the World Poker Tour, a 4-time world champion in equestrian, a serial entrepreneur who founded not one but two successful mining/prospecting companies in an inspector calls Brazil, a policy advisor to illusions:, the Prime Minister of Canada, a professional golfer, and published authors! This class is poised to achieve remarkable things.

I am the new D irector of an inspector calls Recruitment Admissions for the Full-Time MBA Program at the Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto and on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer Relationship I couldnt be happier to be here. In fact, I chose to move across Canada to be here. An Inspector Calls? One of the biggest reasons why I decided to join Rotman was because of its reputation as one of the most innovative b-schools in the MBA space and I am thrilled to use my first blog post not only to introduce myself but also to Chaucer's Tales, share a Program innovation that has just been confirmed. Rotman is introducing a Flexible Internship Program that will give Rotman MBA students the opportunity to work in one of three terms: Summer (May-August), Fall (September-December), or Winter (January-April). An Inspector? Traditionally internships have only been available in on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer Relationship the summer term. This Program innovation will provide Rotman MBA students greater access to opportunity in a wider variety of an inspector industries and have a significant impact on post-MBA employment. The Flexible Internship Program builds on Essay on Communication as Key Client-Trainer Relationship, the experiential learning component of the internship a core part of the Rotman experience and integrates this with three critical pillars of mr birling our program: Rotmans intensive focus on self-development, our globally recognized faculty, and one of the largest Career Centres in North America with a dedicated team of career coaches assigned to individual students. I am extremely proud to be introducing another innovation at the Rotman School. The Flexible Internship Program is a game-changer! I look forward to sharing many more updates with you and am very excited to mcdonald, work together on your MBA Journey! Hard to believe that its already the middle of December!

I guess its true when they say time flies when you are having fun. An Inspector? Ive been having a lot of fun and the adventures of a reluctant have actually moved into a new role at Rotman as Managing Director for the Full-Time MBA Program and enjoying diving in to run the business of the Program a great new professional opportunity for calls me. Admittedly, it has been a busy few months and I havent been as active as I hoped on our blog, but am excited to introduce our new Director of Admissions who will be taking over in the new year stay tuned! Im already very excited about the caliber and diversity of the Geoffrey Chaucer's, Rotman class of 2018 based on early applications, and very much looking forward to seeing applications in the new year. As you know, our Round 2 deadline is January 11th just around the corner! If you do have any questions about your application I encourage you to reach out now the University will be closed for the holidays from December 23-January 4. We are back for one week before the calls mr birling, deadline so will most definitely have plenty of time to recession, assist then, but wanted to an inspector mr birling, ensure we shared our holidays hours well in advance. On behalf of the Rotman Admissions team we hope you have a wonderful and joseph summary safe holiday season! Looking for to 2016 an an inspector mr birling, exciting year of new beginnings #128578; Theyre here! Its hard to believe that just over a year ago I joined the Rotman Full-Time MBA Recruitment and Admissions Team to joseph summary, support the an inspector calls mr birling, team in recruiting the Class of 2017. As a transplant from the iron, Career Centre I was quite sure that I would be able to hit the ground running and mr birling help the define recession, team bring in the best and most capable class that would attract the top employers. (and I believe we did, but more on that later!)

But, what I quickly learned is that theres more to mr birling, building the perfect MBA class than meets the eye. When making offers of admission, not only are we looking at reluctant candidates at an individual level (see more on what we look for an inspector calls mr birling here) but also at a macro level. How are we actually building the cohort to provide a world-class experience to all who come? While I was quite confident on the individual part having had the privilege of insider information from some of the worlds top employers, I learned that the sum is greater than its parts. As a team we carefully screened for intellectual horsepower, impact, presence, and more. Once a candidate passed that test, we carefully considered what would their impact be on the class as a whole? Did we have the joseph summary, right mix? What were we missing from a diversity perspective, a talent perspective, and spikiness perspective? How would we carefully choose individuals to calls mr birling, make up a community that works; something that both we and they will be proud of for joseph summary years to come?

The Class of 2017 can be classified in a myriad of ways: Class Size = 351 Average Age = 27 Average Experience = 4 years Female = 32% (111 in total) Male = 68% Domestic /International = approximately 50/50 split from calls 34 different countries GMAT = 680 (Median), 663 (Mean) But what I am most proud of is some of their impressive accomplishments, in many cases beyond the work realm that the statistics dont quite capture. Chaucer's Tales? Each student was chosen based on their experiences which will bring a unique perspective into the classroom and demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and calls creativity. Characteristics that many of our top recruiters demand. For example, we have students who are a: Published author Varsity athlete soccer, badminton, football, hockey, Frisbee, swimming Pro poker player International sailing champion Singer or music producer Band member who toured Latin America and the US Black belt in Tales Essay judo, karate, jujitsu, taekwondo and karate Patent holder 1/2 and mr birling full marathoner as well as triathlete and former Ironman competitor Surgeon or MD. And I could go on. The cohort is in illusions: the adventures of a their first week of class and an inspector what I hear in the halls most consistently is where did you find such an impressive bunch? The beautiful part about Recruitment and Admissions is that when one year is complete, we get to go out and do it all over again. Next years perfect class will be different from this years because each student who is admitted will bring something equally distinctive.

The next class will take on its own persona and I cant wait to see whos out there. In fact, I enjoyed the Recruitment Admissions experience so much (thank you Class of 2017) Ill be staying on as an Assistant Director this year. I look forward to meeting you on the road in our pursuit for define recession the perfect Class of 2018!

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to calls, new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, youre really sending out introduction, a piece of yourself. So make sure its representing you to mr birling, your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, its important to give your resume the joseph andrew same treatment to make sure its polished and an inspector calls, presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of joseph styles, from strictly businesslike to an inspector calls mr birling, ultra creative browse through them to get some ideas for define recession updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates.

Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for calls mr birling Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. Of A Reluctant! This chessboard-style layout is calls certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusions: the adventures illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of mr birling his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Geoffrey The Canterbury! Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to an inspector, help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales, minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look.

Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of an inspector calls this design by reluctant Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in calls, industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to define recession, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that theres a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to meet you. Heres a little about me header at calls mr birling, the top of define recession this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them. Mr Birling! This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. Who Discovered Element! Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities).

Plus, once you put the work in, this brand is calls something you can use over who discovered iron element and over an inspector calls again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against introduction the background. Mr Birling! This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for mcdonald introduction your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for calls an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N.

Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer Relationship, accent color and a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Calls! Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by define Rachel Winter. If youre seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the an inspector mr birling job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesnt have to define, be the center of attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Mailing out some resumes?

Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into calls your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. The Adventures Of A Reluctant Messiah! It adds a little style while still keeping the mr birling overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on recession your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look.

If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to an inspector calls mr birling, attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. The Canterbury Essay! If you do format your resume in an inspector calls, any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. Recession! Youve only got one name. Make it memorable. Calls! If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the define whole character of your resume. An Inspector! For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to joseph, show your qualifications on the run?

Post your resume online and an inspector calls, make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to an inspector calls mr birling, navigate visually. This template from Essay on Communication as Key to Success Relationship, Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to calls mr birling, call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight.

Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from define recession, her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Calls! Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in various areas, such as management and define recession, design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to an inspector, find out more about you. Illusions: The Adventures Of A Messiah! Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt.

If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. An Inspector Calls! Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an messiah, impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to mr birling, build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. The Adventures! Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by calls mr birling Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact.

Besides being another nice example of recession using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes dont have to be fancy to an inspector calls mr birling, make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and Chaucer's Tales Essay, include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the an inspector calls mr birling crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and joseph andrew summary, short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling! As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the recession box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. Calls! There may be times when its ok to let your sense of humor shine through in as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer, your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable.

For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Mr Birling! Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and Essay on Communication as Key for the Relationship, more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to calls, do what you can to andrew summary, get noticed.

For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. An Inspector Mr Birling! Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales job roles here. Just the mr birling essentials enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. On Communication As Key Relationship! Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the calls mr birling most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from introduction, this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to mr birling, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Geoffrey Chaucer's Essay! Notice how she also created matching business cards for calls mr birling a cohesive personal brand.

Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes dont always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and the adventures of a reluctant messiah, make it easier to navigate, similarly to an inspector calls mr birling, how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from joseph andrew summary, your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). Calls Mr Birling! As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales! Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into mr birling action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of for the Relationship Design Artistree Creative Studio.

After college, she built on her background in art to an inspector mr birling, explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and illusions: of a messiah, Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You. Mr Birling! These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design.

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essay on gentlemans 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List. alius amicus Urbani. I wish to express my thanks to the staff of the Electronic Text Center of the University of Virginia for mr birling providing the technical expertise and the meticulous care necessary to launch this database as an online publication. In particular I wish to thank David M. Seaman, former Director of the Center, who suggested the union list, and Matthew Gibson, Associate Director of the Center, who has overseen its completion. I owe a debt of gratitude to Luther Fredrick Carter, President of Francis Marion University, and Richard N. Chapman, Provost of define, Francis Marion University, for their longstanding collegial interest in my research and calls mr birling their enthusiastic support of this project. I would also like to express my appreciation to the Francis Marion University Board of Trustees for graciously creating the Essay on Communication as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer, position of Trustee Research Scholar which has afforded me crucial additional time to devote to the completion of this research.

I am very grateful to the reference staff of Rogers Library, in particular Roger K. Hux and John M. Summer, for their ready assistance over an inspector calls many years; and to Julian Pooley, FSA, Manager of the Surrey History Centre, Kingston upon Thames, and director of the Nichols Archive Project, who has generously made his vast database of joseph andrew summary, transcripts of Nichols manuscript correspondence available to me, thus enabling me to an inspector mr birling, identify the authors of define recession, scores of letters, articles, and calls mr birling obituaries in the Gentleman's Magazine that would otherwise have remained unattributed. Finally, I would like to mcdonald, thank John Nichols, John Bowyer Nichols, John Gough Nichols, Isabella Nichols, and Richard Gough, who assembled the attributions of authorship in the original Nichols File of the calls mr birling, Gentleman's Magazine laboriously, over define many years, with pen and an inspector mr birling ink, and who, if they were alive today, would deeply appreciate the amazing possibilities of electronic databases. From its founding in mcdonald introduction 1731 by an inspector mr birling, the printer Edward Cave, to its heyday under Cave's successors, David Henry and John Nichols, the Gentleman's Magazine was one of the most influential periodicals in Britain. The breadth of its coverage is stunning. The fluctuating prices of grain or coal or Smithfield beef, daily closing quotations for stocks and bonds, mortality figures (categorized by disease) for the city of London, theatre reviews, original poetry, the parliamentary debates, theological disputes, lists of promotions civil and military, Church preferments, and obituaries by the thousands all crowd the pages of the magazine.

In addition, as an indispensable source of news to its loyal readership scattered throughout the towns, villages, country houses, and Essay for the Client-Trainer parsonages of Britain, the Gentleman's Magazine was unsurpassed. There if nowhere else could eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century readers in an inspector mr birling remote corners of the nation find what was often their first account of the news of the day, whether it be the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755, 1 the define, unearthing of mosaics and frescoes at Herculaneum, 2 Benjamin Franklin's experiments with the calls mr birling, lightning rod and with the kite and introduction the key, 3 the an inspector calls, hanging and burning of define, Phoebe Harris for coining, 4 the visit of the an inspector mr birling, chief of the Yamacraw Indians to introduction, the court of mr birling, George II, 5 the ambush of General Braddock in the woods near Fort Duquesne, 6 the skirmish at Lexington and illusions: the adventures of a messiah Concord, 7 the latest method of cutting for cataracts before anesthesia, 8 the ongoing debate over the application of calls, caustics for who discovered iron breast cancer, 9 the Gordon Riots of 1780 10 and mr birling the Peterloo Massacre of 1819, 11 the guillotining of introduction, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, 12 the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 13 or the an inspector calls mr birling, mutiny on the Bounty . 14 Certainly for present-day researchers the GM constitutes a mine of contemporary information concerning virtually every facet of British life and public interest during the first century of the magazine's existence. When Edward Cave (1691-1754) established the Gentleman's Magazine in 1731 in offices above the sixteenth-century gate of St. Iron Element. John's Priory in Clerkenwell, he could not have known that he was creating what would become a literary institution. His intention was to launch a monthly magazine that would provide foreign and domestic intelligence, original poetry, helpful hints covering everything from agriculture to home remedies, and a digest of newspaper excerpts on leading topics of the day, tailored to an inspector, attract readers in London and points beyond. Listing himself only recession, as printer on the magazine's title page, Cave created a fictitious editor, Sylvanus Urban, Gent., borrowing the name from a 1691 newspaper, Urbanicus and Rusticus , in testimony to his hopes of appealing to city and country dwellers alike.

The early monthly numbers were short (48 pages), and the domestic news columns were deliberately sensationalist, 15 reporting supposed sightings of mermen; 16 graphic accounts of hanging, drawing, and an inspector mr birling quartering, of spousal abuse, and of the trial and punishment of Eleanor Beare, the peripatetic abortionist; 17 and the issuance of an all-points-bulletin for Chaucer's The Canterbury Essay the capture of an inspector calls, Dick Turpin, the highwayman. 18 Excerpts from illusions: the adventures reluctant, newspapers constituted a large proportion of the monthly numbers during Cave's regime, fed in the 1730s by the escalating press war generated by an inspector mr birling, the Opposition's efforts to oust Robert Walpole and during the 1740s by debate over the conduct of the War of the Austrian Succession and by the national fright over mcdonald the Jacobite Rebellion of the 'Forty-Five. 19 The number of original submissions remained small except for an inspector letters posing or responding to joseph andrew, mathematical queries, commentaries on astronomy and an inspector calls mr birling theology, and a plethora of iron element, verse contributions, most of dubious merit. Within two years of the an inspector calls, founding of the GM Cave added a new feature that would make his magazine justly famous: the printing of a crude form of the Chaucer's Essay, parliamentary debates in defiance of the House of Commons' ban on just such an undertaking. Capitalizing on an ambiguity in the Commons' rules that might be interpreted to permit reporting of the debates after but not during a parliamentary session, Cave took the risk and with the August 1732 issue began regularly devoting the GM 's lead article to an inspector mr birling, Debates in Parliament. 20 The accounts were necessarily makeshift, a pastiche of excerpts mined from Abel Boyer's Political State of Great Britain and of notes Cave and his friends managed to take in secret, with smuggled pencil stubs and the adventures messiah scraps of paper balanced on their knees as they sat in the Strangers' Gallery. The resultant speeches, reconstructed in a nearby tavern by the historians William Guthrie and Thomas Birch from the pooled jottings and retentive memories of Cave and his helpers, 21 were approximations at best and sometimes were more reflective of the an inspector calls, redactors' political prejudices than the thoughts of the speakers themselves. Samuel Johnson, who eventually succeeded Guthrie as the mcdonald, compiler of the debates, was notorious for putting his own words into the Members' mouths and making sure, as he once told Sir George Staunton, to put Sir Robert Walpole in the wrong, and to say every thing he could against the electorate of calls, Hanover.

22 When an affronted House of Commons in April 1738 forbade the reporting of its debates at any time, regardless of of a reluctant, whether or not the sessions had ended, the GM simply renamed its monthly leader Debates of the Senate of Lilliput, complete with thinly disguised anagrams or corruptions of the Members' names. 23 The device worked perfectly until Cave brazenly reported the treason trial of the Jacobite rebel, Simon, Baron Lovat, before the House of Lords in April 1747. Arrested, convicted of breach of privilege by the Upper Chamber, fined, and compelled to beg forgiveness on his knees at the bar of the Lords, 24 Cave reluctantly ordered a moratorium on the printing of the debates, only resuming the feature in 1752. With the death of Edward Cave in 1754 and an inspector calls the succession of David Henry (1709-92) and the adventures of a messiah later John Nichols (1745-1826) to the mantle of Sylvanus Urban, the GM entered into a period of tremendous growth, not only in the length of its monthly numbers but also in the range of materials offered up to the magazine's readers. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Henry began the transformation, working after 1778 in close cooperation with Nichols, who that year became part proprietor of the GM with Henry, handled much of the editorial duties of the magazine during the Geoffrey Chaucer's, 1780s, and succeeded Henry as editor in 1791. Under the two men's direction the GM vastly expanded its literary and theatrical reviews, with John Hawkesworth (1720-73), 25 Rev.

John Duncombe (1729-86), and Richard Gough (1735-1809) serving successively as chief literary critics for the magazine. At the same time, the GM all but abandoned the practice of allotting large amounts of space to excerpts from the newspaper press, with the exception of the early 1760s, when the nation was caught up in an inspector mr birling a contentious debate over Lord North's Peace of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury, Paris. Just as the magazine in Cave's day brought mathematical and astronomical concerns before its readership, the GM under the aegis of Henry and an inspector mr birling Nichols continued its coverage of pure and who discovered applied science, publishing letters on Halley's Comet, Herschel's discovery of Uranus, Vincent Lunardi's balloon flight (the first in Britain), and Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination for smallpox; 26 disquisitions on archaeology and numismatics; meteorological diaries; descriptions of newly invented agricultural implements, including a diagram of Jethro Tull's seed drill; 27 and synopses of the calls mr birling, Transactions of the Royal Society . Building on readers' interest in joseph Samuel Johnson's earlier series on the lives of celebrated admirals, the GM gave extensive space to accounts of voyages of discovery, most notably a lengthy series of articles on Captain James Cook's voyage of 1768-71 in mr birling the Endeavour . 28 David Henry, who was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and a first cousin of Patrick Henry of Geoffrey The Canterbury Tales Essay, Virginia, was particularly interested in news from America, and an inspector calls under his direction and that of Nichols the summary, GM provided substantial coverage of events in the New World, reporting with remarkable impartiality the build-up and progress of the American Revolution and milestones in the history of the new republic, including the ratification of the Constitution (printed in calls mr birling its entirety), 29 festivities attending the inauguration of George Washington (himself a subscriber to the GM ), 30 the mcdonald introduction, naming of Washington's first cabinet and mr birling Supreme Court appointees, 31 the laying out of the joseph andrew summary, District of Columbia, 32 and the publication of Washington's Farewell Address (printed in entirety). 33 Henry and Nichols carried on Cave's tradition of embellishing the magazine with illustrative plates and filled the GM with superbly executed engravings of calls, birds, maps, coins, Roman inscriptions, country houses, Bronze-Age dolmens, erupting volcanoes, and summary South Sea islanders. Nichols doubled the an inspector calls, size of the magazine, which grew from its original 600 pages per year to a two-part, 1,200-page annual publication beginning in 1783; and on Communication as Key for the Client-Trainer he expanded the GM 's obituary columns and memoirs to such a degree and with such assiduousness that he earned the unflattering sobriquet of death-hunter. 34 Above all, Henry and Nichols presided over a magazine overwhelmingly devoted to original submissions from a growing readership, 35 submissions that flowed in by the thousands from chiefly anonymous or pseudonymous contributors, avid to calls mr birling, see their offerings in print. The use of fictitious signatures offered several advantages to Mr.

Urban's correspondents. In an age when many gentlemen still regarded writing for introduction the papers as a dubious activity fit only for Grub Street hacks, such literary camouflage provided contributors the protection of anonymity. It afforded others of more liberal mind the delight of mr birling, concealing their identities behind classical pseudonyms, artfully crafted anagrams, and misleading sets of initials. In addition, the use of a variety of different signatures by the same contributors permitted them the amusement of Essay on Communication to Success for the Relationship, deceiving their readers by corresponding with themselves, as well as the luxury of correcting their own mistakes with minimal loss of face. Thus in 1793 Samuel Pegge the Elder, signing L.E. (the terminal letters of his name), contributes a letter, Natural Son of Richard III, 36 correcting his own 1767 submission on the same subject, 37 signed T. Row (the initial letters of the Rector of Whittington, his Derbyshire living). In similar vein, John Hawkesworth in calls mr birling November 1764 sends the GM a piece signed J.H. enclosing Rules for joseph andrew Writing and Speaking correctly, which purports to be a Letter from a Father to a Daughter concerning grammar. 38 The next month Hawkesworth dispatches an unsigned letter, The Folly of useless Words exposed, 39 writing, To the very useful letter of your ingenious correspondent, p. 519, I shall take the an inspector calls mr birling, liberty of adding, as a general rule, that useless words should be always carefully avoided. Recession. . . . John Nichols, himself a prolific contributor, was not above assuming the opposite gender to confuse his readers. Not only did he submit a multitude of letters signed M. Green (taken from the name of his second wife, Martha Green); in addition, in a 1795 letter, Burial Ground of the Jews at Mile-end described, 40 Nichols, coyly signing himself Eusebia, writes, I don't know, Mr.

Urban, what you will say to my inquisitive pen. Your sex can introduce themselves into any house that bears the an inspector calls mr birling, character of antique; but a female Antiquary can only under the the adventures messiah, friendly veil of an assumed name, in your Magazine, satisfy her boundless curiosity. Since some women did contribute to the magazine, including Anna Seward (who generally signed her own name to her submissions), the GM 's readers probably accepted Nichols's deception. Subtle changes start to appear in the content of the GM during the early nineteenth century, as John Nichols began to relinquish more and more control of the operation of the magazine to his son, John Bowyer Nichols, who had become a partner in the firm in 1800; and those changes accelerated after John Nichols's death in 1826. Under John Bowyer the magazine allotted an increased amount of space to religious topics, just as it would later expand its interest in antiquarian and archaeological submissions and reports from learned societies under the influence of John Bowyer's son, John Gough Nichols. An inevitable byproduct of the an inspector mr birling, GM 's new focus was a diminution in the variety of its offerings, together with a loss of the sense of spontaneity that had distinguished the mcdonald, magazine for calls many decades. With changing times and joseph andrew customs fewer contributors indulged in the literary game of mr birling, signing letters with reversed initials, classical pseudonyms, or ingenious anagrams. With altered editorial policies and the commencement of new series in 1834 and 1856, less and less space was allotted to letters to the editor from the GM 's far-flung readership.

The thousands of letters to Sylvanus Urban, by turns whimsical or argumentative or recondite, that had been the mainstay of the magazine under David Henry's and John Nichols's stewardship dwindled to a trickle, relegated increasingly to the Minor Correspondence page or to the filler rounding out each monthly number. Mr. Urban in his mid-nineteenth-century incarnation was clearly less interested in the topics and passions that had preoccupied his eighteenth-century readers: the interpretation of a troublesome passage in Juvenal; 41 details of a newly discovered Roman coin; 42 helpful methods for destroying black beetles in Essay on Communication as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer Relationship London kitchens; 43 the elucidation of the an inspector mr birling, origins of the phrase to joseph andrew, run amuck; 44 the an inspector calls mr birling, minute description of a curious, and . . . non-descript . . . Joseph. caterpillar . . . [,] uncommonly large and beautiful, found in a potato field in mr birling Kent. Define Recession. 45 Under the direction of John Bowyer Nichols and his editor, the Rev. John Mitford, longer articles and reviews, written by a staff of paid contributors, replaced the myriad short items and letters on a vast variety of subjects that had formerly crowded Mr. Calls Mr Birling. Urban's pages. 46 In addition, contributions tended more and more to be signed, as authors ceased to bother with maintaining the pretense of anonymity. Unquestionably the Gentleman's Magazine in its mid-nineteenth-century format was quite a different animal from the periodical that had appeared under Edward Cave's direction a century and a quarter before.

Alterations in style and Geoffrey The Canterbury content only intensified in early 1850, when contributions signed with initials and pseudonyms virtually disappeared except for the Minor Correspondence section. In the calls, mid 1860s the pace of change became precipitous. The Nichols family had already sold the magazine in 1856, and introduction J. H. Mr Birling. Parker (successor to John Nichols's grandson, John Gough Nichols, as editor) gave up his duties in 1865. The latest publishers (Bradbury, Evans, and Co.) launched a second new series (commencing with Vol. 220 for January- June 1866) with the sanguine promise that the GM would maintain its strength in antiquarian matters, cover a more diverse array of subjects in book reviews, reserve considerably more space for contemporary literature, and do an even better job in recording births, marriages, obituaries, and appointments.

Furthermore, the conductors assured their readers, 'Sylvanus Urban' also desires to define recession, lay open his columns much more extensively . . . to Original Correspondence, especially in matters of genealogy, topography, heraldry, local antiquities, personal and family history, folk-lore, philology, etc. 47. The promise of a Gentleman's Magazine redivivus was unhappily short-lived. After a five-volume run, the second new series came to an end and with it any attempt to restore the an inspector mr birling, magazine to even a semblance of its old character. Vol. 225 (June-November 1868) ushered in a third new series, under the direction of define recession, a different editor (Joseph Hatton) and at the reduced price of 1 s . in place of half a crown.

Calling the GM one of the institutions of the country, 48 the new management in mr birling its Preface to readers gamely tried to evoke the mystique of Samuel Johnson and Edward Cave and capitalize on the magazine's venerable past, a past of which it was clearly in awe. True, the Preface acknowledged, the Gentleman's Magazine would be abandoning any further attempt to andrew, provide comprehensive coverage of Politics, Science, Art, the parliamentary debates, literary criticism, or the activities of the learned societies, as [i]t is no longer desirable, it is indeed scarcely possible, for a monthly magazine to comprise the features to which the GM 's old audience had been accustomed. 49 Readers, however, could be assured that, as always, the staff would accept unsolicited contributions and attempt to find a place for them in the GM 's pages. The new number . . . is another link in the long chain that reaches back to 'Edward Cave at calls mr birling, St. John's Gate,' Hatton asserted. We give up no jot of the Urbanian Succession. On Communication As Key To Success Relationship. . . . 50 But to anyone familiar with the magazine in its heyday the new management's attempt to affect the persona of Sylvanus Urban seems self-conscious, awkward, and uncomfortably anachronistic, as if the GM 's mid-Victorian editor had unsuccessfully dressed himself in borrowed robes. In the calls mr birling, course of the following two volumes (226-227) Hatton dropped all pretense of emulating the gracious old magazine in which eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century readers had delighted, abruptly withdrawing the welcome he had extended to unsolicited letters and articles (those mainstays of the old GM ) and jettisoning the as Key to Success for the, obituaries for once and for all. Clearly with the commencement of the third new series in mid 1868 the Gentleman's Magazine became an entirely different entity, a thing that Edward Cave, Samuel Johnson, David Henry, John Hawkesworth, Richard Gough, John Nichols, and their readers and contributors would not even have recognized. It is a sad conclusion for an inspector calls mr birling anyone who (like John Goodford in 1824) would sign himself URBANI AMICUS. 51.

The Gentleman's Magazine has for iron many decades been the subject of close scrutiny by researchers endeavoring to determine the calls mr birling, authorship of the vast number of anonymous and pseudonymous letters, articles, reviews, poems, memoirs, and notes filling its volumes from 1731 until mid-1868, when new editors recast the magazine and irretrievably altered its make-up. Many scholars have directed their attention to the initial decades of the GM 's existence, particularly the Edward Cave epoch (1731-54), attracted in part by the fact that those were the define recession, years that saw the bulk of Samuel Johnson's involvement with the magazine. Early studies by C. Lennart Carlson ( The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine [Providence: Brown UP, 1938]), Donald F. Bond (The Gentleman's Magazine, Modern Philology 38 [1940]: 85-100, with its extensive corrections and additions to Carlson), and Albert Pailler ( Edward Cave et le Gentleman's Magazine [1731-1754] [2 vols.; Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Theses, 1975]) provided numerous attributions of authorship of the GM 's poetry, as has Titia Ram's recent Magnitude in Marginality: Edward Cave and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754, Containing a First-Line Index of all the Poems, With Notes and References on Authorship (N.p.: Gottmann Fainsilber Katz, 1999). Calls Mr Birling. While Carlson, Bond, Pailler, and Ram have concentrated overwhelmingly on joseph andrew summary, the GM 's poetry, works by other scholars have focused on identifying prose submissions to the GM , particularly John L. Abbott's John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters (Madison: U of an inspector calls mr birling, Wisconsin P, 1982) for Hawkesworth contributions; Bertram H. Davis's A Proof of Eminence: The Life of Sir John Hawkins (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973) for Hawkins finds; Claude E. Jones's Charles Woodmason as a Poet ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 59 [1958]: 189-194) for submissions from colonial South Carolina by Woodmason; James M. Osborn's Dr. Johnson's 'Intimate Friend' ( TLS , 9 October 1953, p. 652) for define Stephen Barrett finds; James L. Clifford's Johnson and Lauder ( Philological Quarterly 54 [1975]: 342-356) for William Lauder and William Brakenridge entries; and Arthur Sherbo's From the Gentleman's Magazine . . . An Inspector Calls. ( Studies in Essay on Communication as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer Relationship Bibliography 35 [1982]: 285-305). An Inspector Calls. In addition, numerous specialists in the literary career of Samuel Johnson have worked painstakingly to identify an impressive number of define, Johnson's contributions to the GM . (See Section V below.) When James M. Kuist published The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at the Folger Library (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982), he provided scholars of the periodical press with an calls mr birling indispensable resource: the identification of authorship of nearly 14,000 hitherto anonymous articles, reviews, poems, and define other items appearing in the Gentleman's Magazine from its beginning in calls 1731 until 1856, when the descendants of John Nichols relinquished ownership of the magazine. The publication in 1982 of Kuist's Nichols File , supplying as it did the identification of the authors of thousands of the GM 's articles and letters on politics, history, theology, travel, science, inventions, medicine, literature, philology, and antiquarian lore, was justly welcomed as a signal achievement in recent British press history. However, Kuist's Nichols File , though breathtaking in its accomplishment, did not purport to be a complete listing of all the define, known or decipherable authors of the myriad letters, articles, queries, obituaries, and verse addressed over a century and a quarter to an inspector mr birling, Sylvanus Urban.

In fact, Kuist made a conscious decision to confine his list to those attributions of authorship specifically identified in Essay as Key to Success Relationship handwritten marginal annotations by an inspector mr birling, John Bowyer Nichols 52 and others in his family in the staff copy of the GM , now housed in the Folger Library. Those marginal attributions of authorship in summary the GM , put together by the Nichols family in a massive reconstruction of their office files after a destructive fire in 1808, contain perforce a multitude of omissions, some the calls mr birling, result of haste or sheer carelessness on the part of the annotators, some because the authorship of certain articles and letters defied all efforts at identification, others conversely because the authors' identities seemed at the time too obvious for anyone to bother writing down. Kuist's editorial guidelines, namely, to reproduce the andrew summary, attributions in the Nichols File exactly as written, unavoidably preserved the annotators' omissions as well as their errors. Sometimes John Bowyer Nichols and his fellow annotators inadvertently skipped over items--obviously identifiable signatures of Crito (John Duncombe), for example, or of Scrutator and Academicus (pseudonyms used habitually by both John Loveday the Elder and John Loveday the Younger, between whom, incidentally, the Nichols File fails to distinguish). In other cases the Nichols family recorded attributions for most but not all of the articles in a series. For instance, the file assigned (as Kuist notes) numbers 1-8 of a 1786 series entitled The Trifler to a Mr. An Inspector. Fush of Pembroke College, Oxford, when in actuality Edmund Fushe also wrote numbers 9-12 of the series 53 before poisoning himself with arsenic at the age of 17. Illusions: Messiah. In still other cases, where several poems signed with the identical pseudonym or initials appear on a single page, the annotator inscribed the author's name only once. Since Kuist's list prints only the specific poem against which the annotator happened to write the an inspector calls mr birling, name, evidence that could be used to add a wealth of iron, new attributions to The Nichols File is thus excluded. In addition, John Bowyer Nichols and his family seem to have ignored crucial geographical evidence when compiling their file of attributions of authorship, failing to take advantage of the opportunity to match authors with the towns or even street addresses whence they wrote. As many of the GM 's contributors chose in occasional bursts of candor to forego the anonymity of calls mr birling, initials and sign their full names, it is introduction possible to search forward and backward through the pages of the an inspector calls, GM , identifying with reasonable certainty a number of unassigned contributions by means of pairing sets of initials with place-names.

J.H., a common enough signature, is for example safely identifiable as that of John Holt when it happens to appear in letters dated from Holt's home of Walton, near Liverpool, during the period when Holt was an active contributor to the magazine. In some cases, inevitably, the Essay as Key for the Client-Trainer, annotations recorded in the Nichols File are patently wrong. A major case in point consists of the file's identification of the an inspector, person who used the signature L.E. as Samuel Pegge the Younger. When the Nichols family members reconstructed their records in the wake of the conflagration of 1808, they assumed that the signature L.E. appearing from 1788 through 1795 was that of Pegge the Younger. Thus Kuist lists it for forty-two items included in The Nichols File . However, a powerful piece of earlier and contradictory evidence exists which casts doubt on that assumption. Immediately following the death of Samuel Pegge the Elder the GM published a three-part unsigned memoir of the adventures reluctant, Pegge by his son, Samuel Pegge the Younger, 54 subjoining to it a comprehensive listing of virtually all of Pegge's writings published in the GM and elsewhere. 55 The 1796 list categorically attributes the L.E. articles in question to calls mr birling, Pegge the joseph andrew summary, Elder, a designation that is quite convincing. An Inspector Mr Birling. In the first place, the L.E. articles end abruptly in August 1795, a few months before Pegge the Elder's death. Second, if the GM 's comprehensive Pegge list had erroneously attributed dozens of items to Pegge the Elder, Pegge the Younger presumably would have written to joseph, the GM to correct the an inspector, historical record. There is Chaucer's no evidence that he did so.

Furthermore, according to an inspector mr birling, Nichols himself, Pegge the Younger's contributions to the GM were few in number. To Mr. Define. Pegge we are indebted for the . . . Memoir of his learned Father, Nichols wrote, and for several occasional contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine (italics mine). 56 The bulk of the evidence adduced thus points overwhelmingly to Pegge the Elder as the author of the L.E. items, items incorrectly attributed in The Nichols File to his son. With the help of the lists of known pseudonyms and sets of calls, initials provided in Kuist's own index, plus a mine of information contained in contemporary letters, literary memoirs, and Chaucer's Tales Essay the GM 's invaluable obituaries, as well as determined detective work involving the unscrambling of anagrams and the use of geographical links, it has been possible to an inspector, fill literally thousands of the gaps in the record. Since the appearance of Kuist's Nichols File , a large number of post-Kuist articles and books by various scholars have contributed significantly to the expansion or correction of illusions: of a, identifications of authorship provided in The Nichols File or in earlier scholarship. Those publications include John L. An Inspector Mr Birling. Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon (in Johnson after Two Hundred Years , ed. Paul J. Korshin [Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1986]) for John Hawkesworth contributions; Marion B. Smith's South Carolina and The Gentleman's Magazine ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 95 [1994]: 102-129) for John Lining contributions; Kenneth Monkman's Did Sterne Contrive to Publish a 'Sermon' in define 1738? ( The Shandean: An Annual Devoted to Laurence Sterne and His Works 4 [1992]: 111-133) for an inspector calls two Laurence Sterne items; Richard C. Cole's Recovering William James (fl.

1785-1797), English Writer ( ELN: English Language Notes 36 [June 1999]: 64-78) for items by William James and his wife; Robert D. Pepper's Gilbert White and the 'Gentleman's Magazine' ( TLS , 31 March-6 April 1989, p. Essay On Communication Client-Trainer Relationship. 339) and Gilbert White's Tiny Mouse: A Sceptical Objection in 1789 ( Notes and Queries n.s. 37, no. 3 [September 1990]: 315-317) for several new attributions to Gilbert White of Selborne; Arthur Sherbo's John Coleridge and the Gentleman's Magazine ( Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 [1983]: 86-93), Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 37 [1984]: 228-233), The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and calls mr birling the brothers White ( Archives of Natural History 12 [1985]: 23-29), More from the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton ( Studies in Bibliography 40 [1987]: 164-174), Further Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 42 [1989]: 249-254), The Achievement of George Steevens (New York: Peter Lang, 1990), Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), 'P.B.C.': his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine ( Archives of define, Natural History 22 [1995]: 51-59), Letters to Mr. An Inspector Calls. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 (Studies in British History 44 [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997]), and William Hamilton Reid (fl. 1786-1824): A Forgotten Poet ( Studies in Scottish Literature 29 [1997]: 245-257) for numerous supplementary attributions both of prose and mcdonald verse; and my six-part Attributions of Authorship in calls mr birling the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-77: A Supplement to Kuist ( Studies in Bibliography 44 [1991]: 271-302), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1778- 92 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 45 [1992]: 158-187), Attributions of recession, Authorship . . . , 1793-1808 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 46 [1993]: 320-349), Attributions of Authorship . . . Mr Birling. , 1809-26 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 47 [1994]: 164-195, Attributions of Authorship . . Who Discovered Iron Element. . , 1827-48 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 49 [1996]: 176-207), and Attributions of Authorship . . . An Inspector Calls. , 1849-68, and Addenda, 1733-1838 . . . Mcdonald. ( Studies in Bibliography 50 [1997]: 322-58), as well as my Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by George Smith of Wigton in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59 ( ANQ 14 [Spring 2001]: 5-12). Under the auspices of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia and the university's Electronic Text Center, I published from 1996 through 1999 three electronic databases amassing collectively nearly 20,000 attributions of authorship of items appearing in the GM : My first electronic database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Supplement to Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the an inspector calls mr birling, University of Virginia, 1996) was designed to integrate and in several instances correct the identifications of authorship I had published in define recession my six-part Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine . . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302, 45 (1992): 158-187, 46 (1993): 320-349, 47 (1994): 164-195, 49 (1996): 176-207, and 50 (1997): 322- 58. Attributions of Authorship . . . : A Supplement to Kuist added approximately 4,000 new or corrected attributions of authorship in the GM to the items catalogued by Kuist in the Nichols File . In addition to providing an integrated list, publication of my finds in the form of an electronic database had the further advantage of an inspector, insuring that the information contained in the database was accessible to scholars through a variety of means including searches by Essay as Key to Success for the Relationship, author, title, volume and an inspector page, date, source of attribution, and (when applicable) pseudonyms used by contributors.

My second electronic database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of Finds Appearing Neither in Kuist's Nichols File nor in de Montluzin's Supplement to Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1997) brought together over 1,850 additional attributions of authorship of items in the GM . Those items, synthesized for who discovered iron the first time in one comprehensive supplementary list, were compiled from approximately sixty books and articles by various scholars who, over a number of decades, had made their own significant contributions to the identification of the anonymous authors of the GM 's letters, reviews, articles, poems, and staff notes. Since those additional attributions were scattered through very many publications (many of them out of an inspector mr birling, print), and since a number of Chaucer's Essay, those publications bore titles nondescriptive of their relevance to Gentleman's Magazine studies, researchers interested in the GM had long been hard-pressed to make effective use of them, even when aware of their existence. The publication of Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of Finds . . . , by consolidating information hitherto scattered throughout numerous and often obscure references, thus dramatically simplified the efforts of GM researchers to track down attributions of authorship that did not appear in Kuist's Nichols File or in my first GM database. Taken together, my first two GM databases added forty percent to the total number of calls, items available in Kuist, presenting the finds in a way that permitted researchers to conduct an electronic search of the two GM databases simultaneously. The purpose of my third electronic text, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine : An Electronic Version of James M. Kuist's The Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine (Charlotte: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1999), was to recast Kuist's Nichols File , with its 13,950 attributions of authorship, as an online database in a format identical to that used in my first two GM electronic publications. Researchers already familiar with Kuist's Nichols File in Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales Essay its bound version are of course aware that The Nichols File contains two catalogues. The first (and by far the more valuable for most users) consists of the aforementioned list of nearly 14,000 attributions of authorship of items printed in the Gentleman's Magazine , attributions transcribed by calls, Kuist and his research associates directly from the marginal annotations in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury the Folger copy of the GM . Catalogue II, Documents in the Gentleman's Magazine , contains lists of drawings, printed materials in the Folger Nichols File, and a variety of manuscripts, associated documents, and an inspector other papers pertaining to as Key to Success for the, the GM , either tipped into the pages of the magazine or maintained separately by John Nichols and his descendants. An Inspector Mr Birling. Though Catalogue II provides valuable information for students of the Essay as Key for the, Nichols family publishing business (and though it has furnished me with many useful clues in my own efforts to identify contributors to the magazine in the mid nineteenth century), it was not germane to the scope of the online version of Kuist's Nichols File and thus was excluded from the database. The greatest challenge in converting the printed version of an inspector calls, Kuist into an electronic format compatible with my earlier GM databases was one of rearrangement of the material. Kuist's Nichols File as originally published is first arranged alphabetically by author, then alphabetically within each author's entry in terms of the often numerous pseudonyms or initials the author used, and then chronologically within those subdivisions. Despite the best efforts of Kuist's team of researchers, there are unfortunately frequent errors in define the above sequence, not only in alphabetizing but in the listing of volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and signatures as well.

Since each of my GM databases begins with a complete chronological listing of the attributions contained therein (followed by mr birling, an alphabetical synopsis by contributor as a cross reference), the first task was to convert an alphabetical arrangement of all of the define recession, attributions in Kuist's volume into a strictly chronological listing. It was then essential to compare each typed entry with the corresponding item in the microfilm version of the GM itself, making sure that errors in volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and signatures were corrected. I also used the opportunity to substitute exact titles for Kuist's shortened ones, to cite book titles in the review sections in their entirety unless doing so was impractical, to list proper names in full whenever possible, and to add interpolated explanatory phrases where needed. The present database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731- 1868: An Electronic Union List , is designed to bring together in one key-word-searchable and fully browsable electronic text the an inspector calls, total number of known attributions of authorship of the GM 's letters, articles, reviews, poems, and other items, gleaned from illusions: the adventures of a messiah, all available published and an inspector calls mr birling unpublished sources for the magazine. It consists in andrew part of an integration of my three previous electronic databases, as corrected and refined. However, the union list goes far beyond those texts to expand the citations of thousands of mr birling, items in as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer order to make them more conducive to key-word searches, to create new indices of an inspector, contributors and of pseudonyms, and to incorporate over 6,000 new finds, many of them from the GM 's eighteenth-century run (the period least well represented in Kuist's Nichols File ). Designed to facilitate searches by proper name and subject (as well as by volume, page, date, and pseudonymous signature), and presented in a logical and clear sequence, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List at last makes it possible to bring together in one electronically accessible, fully browsable, and user-friendly format the 25,585 known attributions of authorship in Georgian England's greatest magazine. Like my three earlier GM electronic texts, the union list contains a complete Chronological Listing of all of the The Canterbury Tales Essay, attributions of authorship contained in the database, followed by an alphabetized Synopsis by an inspector mr birling, Contributor supplied as a cross reference to the approximately 2,362 contributors whose work is encompassed in the database. Expanding upon an additional feature I had provided in the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have also included a comprehensive Index of Pseudonyms and Initials used by way of signature in all of the iron element, items cited in the present database.

The present database, like my first GM electronic text and the six-part series of articles that preceded it, makes extensive evidentiary use of Kuist's list of thousands of manuscript articles and unprinted letters to an inspector, the GM 's editors dating mainly from the summary, 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s, materials which form the bulk of an inspector calls, Catalogue II in joseph Kuist's Nichols File . With the help of information contained in an inspector calls mr birling Catalogue II it has been possible to arrive at hundreds of attributions of to Success Client-Trainer Relationship, authorship, though the use of Catalogue II requires caution. Not every would-be contributor proposing to review a work for the magazine was in the end commissioned to do so. In addition, as Catalogue II demonstrates, in various instances several writers sent letters to Bowyer Nichols and his staff offering to review the same publication. As a result, I have continued to treat as tentative all attributions of authorship based on offers from would-be contributors to supply book reviews, memoirs, and the like, unless the evidence makes it certain that the proffered material was actually accepted. I have continued to designate those attributions as tentative where they appear in the union list.

The union list, like the online version of mr birling, Kuist's Nichols File , contains hundreds of attributions of Essay on Communication as Key, review articles written by Richard Gough, the an inspector mr birling, leading reviewer for the Gentleman's Magazine during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury. Those items present special difficulties, because the Nichols File contains disconcerting ambiguities with regard to an inspector calls, their proper attribution. Since their ultimate authority is Gough himself, those attributions ironically should be among the most certain in the GM . Knowing that his old friend John Nichols was struggling to reassemble his papers and recession literary collections after the an inspector, 1808 fire at his printing office, Gough kindly bequeathed to Nichols his personal set of volumes of the GM with Gough's own contributions marked therein. When John Bowyer Nichols and his fellow annotators set about reconstructing their files, they transferred Gough's annotations to their own set of introduction, GM volumes. 57 However, in many cases Gough's book reviews were not marked individually.

Instead, Gough's contributions to mr birling, the review sections of the GM were all too often designated with the catch-all phrase, the various works on these pages. Kuist in the printed version of the Nichols File repeated those words exactly, bloc-listing entire review sections instead of listing the reviews individually. (Incidentally, Kuist's decision to preserve the designation en masse of Richard Gough's reviews accounts for nearly 800 items in the thousand-odd discrepancy between the illusions: of a reluctant messiah, nearly 13,000 attributions Kuist thought he had in the Nichols File and the 13,950 attributions that he actually had.) Sometimes the designation the various works on these pages is clear enough, but in other cases the placement of articles on a page in the GM makes attribution of authorship very difficult indeed. In preparing the union list I have maintained certain conventions I adopted in the online version of the Nichols File to an inspector mr birling, assure consistency in the listing of Richard Gough's attributions of authorship. First, it is clear enough that if a review begins on a page included in the specific page range but ends after that page range (or conversely ends on a page included in the specified page range but begins before that page range), it was not meant to be attributed to Gough. I have not included any such items in Gough's list.

However, the main problem lies in numerous instances in which a piece definitely attributed to Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales Essay, Gough ends on the last page of an inspector mr birling, a page range but is followed by Chaucer's Tales, one or more works that fall entirely on that same page. Should they also be attributed to Gough, since they are certainly among the various works on these pages? The same difficulty arises at the beginning of a specified range of pages, when several reviews fall totally on the first page of the page range, followed by a review that spills over from the first to the second page in the range. Should the calls, preceding reviews on the first page likewise be attributed to Gough? Unless there is a convincing reason to make an exception, I have attributed such ambiguous reviews that fall at the beginning or end of the who discovered iron, page range provisionally to Gough, including the designation [? (attribution unclear in Kuist)] in the text of the entry. Though the calls, attribution of certain items to Gough remains perforce an imprecise business, the application of the above conventions at illusions: the adventures reluctant messiah, least insures consistency. An Inspector Calls. 58.

The identification of Samuel Johnson's contributions to the GM presents unusual difficulties centering upon a host of conflicting claims, published over many years, concerning Johnson's authorship of introduction, various disputed items. This is particularly true with regard to Johnson's role in the compilation of calls, portions of the parliamentary debates. In preparing the union list I have continued to follow conventions I developed for my second GM database to govern the inclusion of purported Johnson attributions. For a discussion of the andrew summary, conflicting evidence with regard to an inspector mr birling, Johnson's contributions to the GM and a synopsis of the guidelines I have adopted for the inclusion of Johnson items in the union list, readers should consult Section V of this introduction. The union list contains over introduction 6,000 new attributions of authorship.

Many of them involve items excerpted from the London newspaper press chiefly during the 1730s-1760s, items written for the papers by such contributors as Samuel Johnson, Henry Fielding, Lord Chesterfield, Arthur Murphy, John Hawkesworth, John Wilkes, Charles Churchill, Tobias Smollett, and Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, which were not listed in the earlier electronic texts. In preparing the revised union list, I have decided that, though those items are reprinted material, they should nevertheless be included where appropriate, in an inspector mr birling order to make the record of authorship of mcdonald, items in the GM as complete as possible. (For a full discussion of the guidelines I have used for the inclusion of calls mr birling, newspaper excerpts, readers should consult Section VI of this introduction.) The union list also makes use of various attributions of authorship kindly furnished to me by Edward W. Of A Messiah. Pitcher, Emeritus Professor of English, the University of Alberta, from his massive research on an inspector mr birling, eighteenth-century magazines, and by Julian Pooley, Director of the Surrey History Centre, from his ongoing Nichols Project, a tremendous undertaking dedicated to Essay on Communication for the Client-Trainer Relationship, the creation of an electronic database cataloging thousands of an inspector calls mr birling, manuscript letters written by and to John Nichols and his descendants which are currently scattered throughout many public and private collections on both sides of the Atlantic. Who Discovered. In addition, in order to make the union list as comprehensive and an inspector calls useful as possible, I have chosen to include several thousand items which, though signed, bear only a partial and therefore potentially confusing signature. Writers familiar enough to eighteenth-century readers have in many cases sunk into obscurity; and though the signatures J. Sackette or G. Andrew Summary. Smith would have meaning for the GM 's subscribers in the 1740s, it is calls useful for readers today to known that those signatures refer specifically to Rev. John Sackette (d. 1753; clergyman and Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales poet) and to George Smith of Wigton (d. 1773; astronomer, topographer, and traveler), respectively.

The union list also incorporates Arthur Sherbo's valuable corrections concerning items by Rev. John Kynaston (who wrote under the calls, signatures Q. of Wigan and Q. of Caerhaes, Cornwall, and recession whose work I had earlier misattributed to Richard Gough). Throughout the an inspector mr birling, union list I have made every reasonable effort to list all proper names in full, tracking down the individuals in question in the Dictionary of National Biography , the Oxford and Cambridge alumni lists, the British Library's General Catalogue of Printed Books , Robert Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica (Edinburgh, 1824), David Erskine Baker's Biographia Dramatica (London, 1812), the GM obituary lists, and other references. Contributors to joseph, the GM , especially in the eighteenth century, could be maddeningly inexact in referring to persons, who were generally identified by surname only (Mr. Smith, Dr. Middleton), by pseudonym (Clericus, your recent Correspondent from mr birling, Wigton), or by ambiguous references to title (Earl of H---ke, the define, late Bishop of London).

The GM 's index-makers, even the otherwise meticulous John Nichols himself, made no attempt to mr birling, remedy the deficiency but merely opted to record names in introduction indices as originally listed in the text. Indeed, indices of persons mentioned in the lengthy lists of births, marriages, deaths, appointments, and preferments for the early decades of the GM habitually provided nothing beyond surnames, leaving researchers with the mind-boggling task of searching, for example, through hundreds of citations (many directing the reader to the wrong volume or page) for an elusive Mr. White, full name unknown. Any GM researcher who has wrestled with the problem of mr birling, incomplete references to persons will feel instant sympathy with Rev. Samuel Pegge the who discovered element, Elder, who in a fit of exasperation wrote in 1792 to rail against both the magazine's careless omission of first names and its frequent slip-ups in citation: A Gentleman, whose signature is G.M. . An Inspector Mr Birling. . . proposes to give information of an English translation of Homer, by the Bp. of Ossory; and the account appears to be very satisfactory. But who is this Bp. of Ossory, now defunct? I am in who discovered element the dark, and cannot help myself, as there is no series of the prelates of that see in any book I have; and 500 or 1000 of your readers, Mr. Urban, I am inclined to believe, are in calls mr birling the same predicament. But the paper in illusions: of a messiah question, it may be said, is in an inspector mr birling answer to Academicus . But in what year, and in iron element what month, and in what page, am I to find Mr. Academicus?

So that I am in mr birling the dark here again. In short, Sir, one would always wish authors to be as plain and explicit as they can, and to summary, give their readers no unnecessary or perplexing trouble. Another culpable piece of conduct, Mr. Urban, in many of an inspector, your very numerous correspondents, is, that they say, Mr. Mcdonald. Jackson , or Mr. An Inspector Mr Birling. Thompson , c. without giving the Christian name of the person; as if there was no other person of the name in England but the party there spoken of; whereas every body knows what numbers of Jacksons and Thompsons we have in this island.

One name might do in the Saxon times, where few surnames were used, the Christian names were so various, and the country was not so populous as now; but at this time, it is define recession inexcusable in writers to omit the Christian names of such popular denominations as Smith, Taylor, Wood, c. without premising the prenomen, unless the person intended be very eminent, or some way concerned with the business in hand. Following up on the expanded form of an inspector mr birling, citation that I had introduced into the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have taken the opportunity to replace the short titles listed in thousands of joseph, items in my first and second GM databases with complete titles for all letters, articles, poems, and an inspector calls book reviews. As a further assistance to users, I have taken care to add explanatory phrases in brackets to indicate subject matter (Catholic Emancipation, slave trade, Test Act, Regency Bill, etc.) in instances of titles that are otherwise nondescriptive of the define, contents of the items in question. In the calls, case of Geoffrey, certain contributors (notably James Roche and James Temple Mansel) who wrote unusually discursive essays, I have made sure to include in the titles all of the various subjects that appear as page headings in the articles. My aim throughout has been to make the union list not just a listing of who wrote what in an inspector mr birling the Gentleman's Magazine but also a user-friendly resource for researchers interested in English literature, history, economics, medicine, science, theological controversies, topography, and antiquarian matters, presenting the text in a way that would not only define recession, be fully browsable but would readily permit key-word searches by name or topic. Researchers attempting to piece together an accounting of which items Samuel Johnson did or did not write for the GM must sift through the claims and counterclaims advanced by calls, numerous Johnson scholars. The obvious starting points are William Prideaux Courtney's and David Nichol Smith's A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915), the first of the joseph andrew, twentieth-century attempts to put together a reliable Johnson canon, and an inspector calls J. D. Fleeman's A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson, Treating of his Published Works from the Geoffrey Tales, Beginnings to 1984 , 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon P, 2000); 60 W. Calls Mr Birling. J. Bate, John M. Bullitt, and L. F. Powell, eds., The Idler and The Adventurer (vol. 2 of The Yale Edition of the recession, Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1963]; W. J. Bate and an inspector calls Albrecht B. Strauss, eds., The Rambler (vols. 3-5 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1969]; E. L. McAdam, Jr., and who discovered iron element George Milne, eds., Samuel Johnson: Poems (vol. 6 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1964]); Donald J. Greene, ed., Samuel Johnson: Political Writings (vol.

10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1977]); and an inspector the Johnson entry in The New Cambridge Bibliography of who discovered element, English Literature (ed. George Watson; vol. 2: 1660-1800 [Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1971]). The search must then continue through an mr birling examination of claims concerning purported Johnson contributions to the GM that have been put forward in J. Reading's Poems by Johnson ( TLS , 11 September 1937, p. The Adventures Messiah. 656); D. J. An Inspector Mr Birling. Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? ( Review of English Studies n.s. 3 [1952]: 158-161); Benjamin Beard Hoover's Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in the Senate of Lilliput (Berkeley: U of Essay to Success Relationship, California P, 1953); James L. Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson (London: William Heinemann, 1955); Edward A. Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957); Jacob Leed's Samuel Johnson and an inspector mr birling the 'Gentleman's Magazine': An Adjustment to the Canon ( Notes and Queries 102 [1957]: 210-213), Samuel Johnson and Essay on Communication as Key for the Client-Trainer the Gentleman's Magazine : Studies in the Canon of His Miscellaneous Prose Writings, 1738-1744 (Diss.; U of Chicago, 1958), and an inspector Two Notes on illusions: reluctant, Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine ( Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 54 [1960]: 101-110); Donald J. Greene's Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine ( PMLA 74 [1959]: 75-84); Gwin J. Kolb's More Attributions to Dr. Johnson ( Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 1 [1961]: 77-95); Arthur Sherbo's Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755 (in Johnsonian Studies , ed.

Magdi Wahba [Cairo: n.p., 1962]); Donald J. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Greene's The Development of the Johnson Canon (in Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in Honor of introduction, Alan Dugald McKillop , ed. Carroll Camden [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963]); F. V. Bernard's Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson ( Notes and Queries n.s. 14 [1967]: 176-180) and Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates ( PMLA 82 [1967]: 408-419); John L. Abbott's Samuel Johnson and 'The Life of Dr. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Richard Mead,' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 23; Timothy Erwin's The Life of recession, Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter ( Notes and Queries 30 [1983]: 525-526), John L. Calls Mr Birling. Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon in Johnson after Two Hundred Years 127-139; John A. Essay As Key. Vance's Johnson's Historical Reviews (in Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism , ed. Prem Nath [Troy, New York: Whitston, 1987]); and Thomas Kaminski's brilliant work, The Early Career of Samuel Johnson (New York: Oxford UP, 1987), which is rich not only in new Johnson attributions but also in William Guthrie finds. Certainly one of the central issues in Johnson scholarship concerns the extent of the role played by Johnson in the GM 's printing of the parliamentary debates. I have already taken note of the haphazard manner in which the magazine re-created the debates, relying on the hit-or-miss efforts of calls mr birling, Edward Cave and his band of spectators in the galleries to iron element, listen attentively to the speeches in the chambers, take surreptitious notes when they could, and mr birling later reconstruct the joseph summary, gist of what Lords and Commons had said, turning out a version of the debates that was part summary, part fictionalized rhetorical flourishes. Since it was very often Johnson who supplied those rhetorical flourishes, recasting the speeches to such an extent that they were more his own than their nominal authors' words, the duration of mr birling, Johnson's involvement in the enterprise is of key importance in the matter of assigning attributions. For a long time the standard authority on Johnson's participation in the writing of the debates has been Hoover's 1953 Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in the Senate of Lilliput . Greene in Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine and joseph andrew Bernard in Johnson and mr birling the Authorship of Four Debates (both cited above) have attributed some additional debates to Johnson, in particular claiming that Johnson's production of the debates did not cease with early 1744 but extended throughout that year.

Kaminski has added further possible Johnson contributions to the debates in his authoritative and extremely detailed Early Career of to Success for the Client-Trainer Relationship, Samuel Johnson , which has displaced both Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson and an inspector mr birling Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street as the best available account of Johnson's early career as a writer for the Magazine . In synthesizing the attributions of introduction, authorship listed in an inspector calls this database, I have followed Kaminski in mcdonald assigning to the Scottish historian William Guthrie the parliamentary debates that appear in calls mr birling the GM 's volume 8 (1738), with revisions by Johnson, and likewise those in as Key to Success Relationship volume 9 (1739) and the beginning of volume 10 (1740), without revisions by Johnson. I have accepted Kaminski's attribution to Guthrie of several of the debates printed in the middle of volume 10 (with revisions by Johnson), that in GM 10 (1740): 530-545 to Guthrie alone, and the opening two paragraphs of that in GM 10 (1740): 579 provisionally to an inspector mr birling, Johnson. Beginning with the debate printed in GM 10 (1740): 585-592 through that in GM 14 (1744): 59-64 Johnson was clearly the sole author, as shown (in the cases of the debates in GM 10 [1740]: 585-592 and 11 [1741]: 2-13) by Essay as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer, Bernard and Kaminski and calls mr birling as asserted for the rest of the period by Courtney and Smith in their Bibliography of Samuel Johnson and by Hoover in Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting . Johnson may also have written the debate on define, pay for Hanoverian troops that appeared in GM 14 (1744): 64-67 (for which see Courtney and Smith, Hoover, and an inspector Greene) and who discovered element probably contributed that in GM 14 (1744): 119-125. Bernard claims the debates in GM 14 (1744): 125-137 and 175-186 for an inspector calls Johnson as well. Greene (echoed by Bernard but vigorously disputed by Kaminski) contends that Johnson may also have written the iron, debates printed throughout the rest of 1744. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. I have included those provisional attributions in the database, designating them in each case by who discovered iron element, a question mark to indicate that scholarly opinion is still unresolved on those items. As for calls mr birling the contention put forward by Sir John Hawkins in his Life of Johnson that John Hawkesworth succeeded Johnson as the author of the parliamentary debates, 61 Abbott in Essay as Key to Success for the Relationship his John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters declares himself unable to decide whether to accept or reject the claim. After long review, he writes, I could come to no conclusion on the basis of internal evidence, though external evidence would seem to support Hawkesworth's claim to some of the debates. 62 In light of Abbott's reservations, I have deemed Hawkins's attribution of some of the later parliamentary debates to Hawkesworth to be too insubstantial to warrant inclusion in the database.

Researchers should note that I have deleted from the union list 51 supposed Johnson attributions that I had included in my second GM database, items claimed as Johnson's by Arthur Sherbo in his Samuel Johnson and mr birling The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755, Johnsonian Studies , ed. Magdi Wahba (Cairo: n.p., 1962) 133-159. Recession. Professor Sherbo in his subsequent Letters to calls, Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 , Studies in British History 44 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997) 229 disclaimed the attributions to on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer, Johnson contained in his 1962 article. I have retained in the union list six other Johnson items cited in the 1962 article, as they are independently attributed to Johnson in Edward A. Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (1957), Donald Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s. 3 (1952): 158-161, and The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (1971). Attributing authorship of excerpts from the newspaper press is an an inspector undertaking fraught with difficulty and especially susceptible to problems of inexactitude. There is a world of difference, for example, between a verbatim excerpt from The Rambler , fully accepted as part of the Johnson canon, and a passage from the Weekly Miscellany , partly quoted and partly paraphrased, which was probably written by Rev. William Webster, the Weekly Miscellany 's leading spirit, but which might have been furnished by an unknown contributor. Between those two extremes lie many gradations in Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales Essay terms of the certainty (or lack thereof) with which one can assign authorship. An Inspector Calls. The problem is compounded by the fact that eighteenth-century sources and modern-day scholars alike are sometimes woefully imprecise in describing the duties of various writers for the newspaper press.

Nicholas Amhurst was the author of the Craftsman , earlier press historians confidently aver, and every item bearing the signature Caleb D'anvers, the paper's fictitious editor, should be attributed to him. Recession. Nicholas Amhurst was the conductor of the Craftsman , other scholars state with more caution, leaving to their bemused readers the task of deciding exactly what the word conductor means. An Inspector Calls. Nicholas Amhurst was the editor or the editor and chief writer of the Craftsman , still others write, progressively hedging their opinions even to the point of unhelpfully describing Amhurst by turns as author, conductor, and editor within the same handful of pages, as if the illusions: the adventures of a, terms were interchangeable. Some, like Simon Varey, 63 contend that since so many writers for the Craftsman used the an inspector mr birling, signature Caleb D'anvers, nothing thus signed can conclusively be attributed to Nicholas Amhurst without additional corroborative evidence. As a result, researchers attempting to sort out who wrote what for the newspaper press are in many cases left to define recession, cope as best they can with various shades of ambiguity.

In compiling this union list, I have considered it imperative, first, to arrive at precise guidelines to be used for inclusion or exclusion of newspaper excerpts and for determining the degree of certainty with which authorship can be assigned; second, to follow those guidelines with the utmost consistency; and third, to state them explicitly for the benefit of readers. Users of this database should note that in dealing with the attribution of newspaper excerpts, I have attempted throughout to calls, err on the side of caution in separating the certain from the tentative and, in the case of the Essay to Success Client-Trainer, latter, to differentiate clearly and consistently among various degrees of probability when assigning authorship. Though some users may disagree with the wisdom of including tentative attributions and an inspector may choose simply to ignore those items, they may be assured that I have made every effort to avoid the trap of indiscriminately mingling certainty and mere guesswork in attributing authorship. In the first place, it has been necessary to determine how to treat excerpts that are condensed or summarized. Andrew. As F. V. Bernard has noted, 64 Edward Cave's competitors complained constantly of his habit not only of pirating but of an inspector mr birling, drastically condensing excerpts from newspapers and journals until sometimes they were twisted out of all recognition by iron element, their authors. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Cave's editorial practice of condensing material presents the problem of arriving at a standard to mcdonald introduction, use in dealing with excerpts that are sometimes printed verbatim, sometimes printed with quoted material interspersed with editorial connective tissue, sometimes paraphrased, and sometimes simply summarized (on occasion with approving or disparaging comments by an inspector calls, the GM included for good measure). In the GM union list I am including excerpts if they contain any verbatim material, even though passages in some instances are condensed. I am excluding items that are simply paraphrases or summaries. In addition, I am using the summary, following conventions with regard to assigning authorship of newspaper excerpts: I am including excerpts from a number of newspapers in cases in which their authorship is a certainty or highly likely: The Adventurer : 13 John Hawkesworth and 3 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in an inspector calls the Hawkesworth and Johnson canon) plus one Adventurer item that has been provisionally but convincingly attributed to Bonnell Thornton Auditor : 15 Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in Essay as Key the Murphy canon) Briton : 17 Tobias Smollett excerpts (all accepted items in the Smollett canon) Champion : two James Ralph excerpts signed Lilbourne and generally acknowledged as Ralph's Common Sense : 13 Chesterfield excerpts (accepted items in the Chesterfield canon) Connoisseur : some dozen excerpts jointly written by George Colman the Elder and Bonnell Thornton and one written by John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery (authoritatively attributed to their authors in Alexander Chalmers's Historical and an inspector calls Biographical Preface to The Connoisseur 65 ) Corn-Cutter's Journal : four items provisionally attributed to Rev.

John Henley, who is thought to have been the illusions: the adventures of a, chief writer of that newspaper. Covent-Garden Journal : some dozen Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Craftsman : 48 Bolingbroke items (including excerpts from calls, his Remarks on the History of England and his Dissertation upon Parties ); 36 probable Henry Fielding excerpts, convincingly attributed to him by Martin Battestin; 3 tentative Samuel Strutt items; and 2 George Lyttelton items; as well as 3 items tentatively attributed to William Pulteney and 111 items tentatively attributed to Nicholas Amhurst by Simon Varey 66 Daily Gazetteer : two known William Horsley items Drury-Lane Journal : one excerpt by Bonnell Thornton Englishman : one W. Prynne item which formed part of one of the only two issues in the run of the Englishman , conducted by Prynne) Fog's Journal : three Chesterfield item Gray's Inn Journal : several Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in the Murphy canon) Hyp-Doctor : approximately a dozen excerpts attributed to John Henley, the acknowledged author of that paper The Idler : 25 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Johnson canon) and one excerpt that has been conclusively attributed to Bennet Langton The Inspector : several excerpts from Dr. John Hill, the known author of illusions: of a, that paper Jacobite's Journal : some 16 Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in an inspector mr birling the Fielding canon) Nonsense of Common-Sense : one item attributed to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the author of that short-lived newspaper North Briton : 11 John Wilkes excerpts, one Charles Churchill excerpt, and one piece by William Temple of illusions: messiah, Trowbridge (all attributed conclusively) Prompter : 20 items by Aaron Hill and 22 items by William Popple, as well as 11 items provisionally attributed to an inspector, Aaron Hill The Rambler : 24 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Johnson canon) True Patriot : several Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Universal Spectator : one Fielding excerpt provisionally attributed to introduction, Fielding by Martin Battestin World : several dozen attributions to Edward Moore, Chesterfield, and others (identified in the collected issues of the World issued as part of Alexander Chalmers's British Essayists ) In the case of five newspapers, I am including tentative attributions of authorship for items signed with a pseudonym that is generally associated with a particular writer: Daily Courant : several Ralph Courteville items signed Freeman or R. Freeman Daily Gazetteer : over twenty James Pitt items signed F. Osborne, some five William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham, and fifteen Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman Free Briton : two William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham Grub-Street Journal : various Richard Russel items signed Maevius and contributions by either Russel or John Martyn signed Bavius 67 London Journal : nine Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman and some two dozen James Pitt items signed F. Osborne In three cases in an inspector calls which a newspaper was conducted by one or two persons known to define recession, have been the principal author or authors, I am including excerpts from that newspaper but attributing them tentatively: Old England: or the Constitutional Journal : dozens of items which I am including with the following provisional attribution: William Guthrie [?] or James Ralph [?] (or others) Read's Journal : over a dozen items which I am provisionally attributing to Richard Burridge, ascribing their authorship to Richard Burridge [?] (or others) Weekly Miscellany : over an inspector calls a hundred items which I am provisionally attributing to Rev. William Webster, ascribing their authorship to Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). The Old England Journal presents special difficulties, as the joseph andrew, tenure of its conductors has never been determined satisfactorily. William Guthrie and an inspector mr birling James Ralph were the co-editors and principal, perhaps exclusive, authors of the joseph summary, Old England Journal , which they conducted under the pseudonym of Jeffrey Broadbottom. The Old England , founded by Chesterfield to calls, be the chief mouthpiece of the Broad-Bottom Opposition to the Carteret ministry, was left in limbo when Chesterfield and Tales Essay his fellow Broad-Bottom politicians joined the government in late 1744 upon Carteret's retirement and withdrew their support for the paper. 68 Despite the an inspector calls mr birling, fact that Guthrie was given a pension by the new regime in January 1745, the Old England in its 2 February 1745 issue fired a warning shot, declaring that unless the new ministers pursued new policies, the Old England Journal would then attack them with the ferocity that had characterized the dismemberment of the metamorphosed Actaeon by his dogs.

69 When the regime failed to Essay to Success Relationship, alter its policies, the Old England did indeed become a furious critic of the calls, administration. 70 As the recession, GM , drawing extensively from the Old England 's own account, summarized the paper's volte-face : While the exact date of Guthrie's and Ralph's departure is uncertain, the 4 October 1746 issue of Old England (no. An Inspector. 179) suggests that the two men continued to edit and serve as principal writers for the paper until just prior to that date. Certainly as of the 4 October 1746 issue a new editor had assumed command, one Argus Centoculi, whose identity has never been established. 72. In the case of the Weekly Miscellany , the problem lies not in determining when its editor resigned but when he ceased to element, be assisted by others in writing material for the journal. Rev. William Webster, a High-Church divine, was clearly the an inspector calls mr birling, principal author of the Weekly Miscellany , conducting business under the fictitious name of Richard Hooker, of the Temple, the newspaper's supposed editor. It was Webster who established the paper's rabidly anti-Dissenter, anti-Methodist, and anti-Catholic character, dedicating the Weekly Miscellany so exclusively to religious and moral topics that it came to illusions: the adventures of a, be known as Old Mother Hooker's Journal. Though he was assisted in mr birling the beginning of the undertaking by several other contributors, he notes in the final issue of the Weekly Miscellany (27 June 1741) that those writers gradually withdrew their assistance, as did the booksellers he had originally engaged as backers, so that eventually he was left the introduction, sole prop of the enterprise, to his own financial loss.

As it is unclear at calls, what point Webster's occasional contributors ceased to provide materials for the paper, I am taking the precaution of attributing all but the element, last of the Weekly Miscellany excerpts printed in the GM to Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). Except for specific items the authors of which have been independently identified, I am not including attributions of authorship for excerpts from newspapers that utilized a staff of unidentified writers. Those newspapers include the Champion and the Universal Spectator . Though James Ralph became the editor and leading writer for the Champion after the withdrawal of Henry Fielding in early 1741, it has so far proved impossible to determine the authorship of articles published during 1742-44, the period during which the GM published excerpts from the newspaper. As for the Universal Spectator , though originally edited by Henry Baker under the name Henry Stonecastle, the Universal Spectator was in fact written by a team of contributors.

Others besides Baker apparently used the pseudonym Stonecastle, as items bearing that signature appear as late as 1741, while Baker seems to calls mr birling, have written no articles for the Universal Spectator after 19 May 1733. 73. A careful count of all of the letters, articles, reviews, poems, and who discovered iron other items in Attributions of calls, Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List , reveals the following incidence of attributions: The greatest incidence of identification of authors comes from the period beginning with volume 53 (1783), the first volume for which John Bowyer Nichols and others in as Key to Success Client-Trainer Relationship his family began a systematic attempt to calls mr birling, record contributors to the GM , through 1856, the year the Nichols family sold the magazine. Define Recession. Determined efforts by numerous scholars have nevertheless identified the authors of 10,428 items from the period of 1731-1800, with the other 15,157 attributions dating from the years 1801-68. There would be far fewer identifications of contributors to calls mr birling, the GM 's eighteenth-century volumes were it not for the fact that Richard Gough, the GM 's single most prolific contributor, bequeathed his marked copies of the GM to John Nichols after the fire in 1808, with the result that his own multitudinous reviews, articles, and letters found their way into the Nichols File, though sometimes in mcdonald a maddeningly ambiguous way. Because Attributions of an inspector mr birling, Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List is an on Communication as Key to Success Client-Trainer Internet database, it is of course fully searchable electronically by an inspector calls mr birling, volume number, page number, date, title, author, pseudonym, and key word. As noted above, I have interpolated explanatory words or phrases as needed to facilitate key-word searches. However, readers conducting key-word searches should be aware that I have strictly preserved quirks of on Communication as Key to Success Relationship, original spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in listing titles of articles and of books reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine . The Union List is also designed to be fully and easily browsable.

Users who choose simply to read the text will find that it is divided, as stated earlier, into four sections, the Introduction, a Chronological Listing, a Synopsis by Contributor, and an Index of Pseudonyms and Initials. The Chronological Listing is exactly what the name implies, a chronological sequence of calls, all of the 25,585 known attributions of authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , beginning with the earliest attribution (a paper by Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, excerpted from the Craftsman and joseph andrew reprinted in GM 1 [1731]: 3) and ending with the last (a letter from Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward, librarian in ordinary to Queen Victoria, in GM 224 [1868]: 661). Each item in the Chronological Listing contains the an inspector calls mr birling, volume number, year, and mcdonald page number followed by the item in mr birling question, the joseph summary, author's name (listed in bold type for an inspector ease of viewing), the source of or authority for the attribution, and the original signature appended to Geoffrey Essay, the item (if there is calls one). Each item in the Chronological Listing bears one of the following designations: L: letter to Sylvanus Urban (the GM 's fictitious editor) A: article R: review V: poetry O: obituary P: plate S: staff item of editorial content. The Synopsis by Contributor consists of a listing of all of the approximately 2,362 contributors known to have written items printed in the GM , arranged alphabetically by author and Geoffrey Chaucer's Essay providing in each entry the fullest possible version of the an inspector calls mr birling, author's name, the who discovered iron element, author's birth and death dates (when available), and a succinct description of the author's occupation (antiquary and an inspector calls mr birling topographer, schoolmaster, divine and Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales historian, etc.) if known, followed by a complete listing by volume, date, and page numbers of the author's contributions to the GM set forth earlier in the Chronological Listing. Calls Mr Birling. Volume numbers in iron element the Synopsis by Contributor are listed in bold type for ease of use. The Synopsis by an inspector, Contributor is thus designed to be an alphabetical cross reference to the entries that appear in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales the Chronological Listing. Users of the Synopsis by Contributor should be aware of an important caveat involving the problem of whether or not to assign to an author a number of items which seem to have been written by the same person but which have been attributed to him (by authority of whatever source) under slightly different versions of his name. That difficulty occurs especially in instances of certain contributors who were originally listed in Kuist's Nichols File by surname only.

Obviously in some cases the members of the Nichols family who produced the marginal annotations used by Kuist did not know a given contributor's full name, whereas in other cases the annotators probably considered a contributor so well known that they did not bother to write his full name into their copy of the GM . Since Kuist made a conscious effort to print the attributions of authorship exactly as they are written in the staff copy, in some cases items by calls, a single contributor appear in Kuist under multiple authorial entries, a fact that can lead users of the who discovered iron element, printed version of Kuist's Nichols File to the erroneous conclusion that the items in question were written by more than one person. For example, contributions by Rev. William Charles Dyer appear in Kuist's Nichols File under two separate headings, that of Mr. An Inspector Calls. Dyer and define that of Rev. Mr. Dyer. Whether deriving my information from Kuist or from any other source, in cases in which I have been able to determine that such items were in fact by calls, the same contributor, I have merged the lists. In cases in which there is insufficient proof to be sure of that assumption, I have continued to list the items under separate authorial headings, believing that caution is essential in such instances.

Separate listing of contributors should not, however, preclude the possibility that the contributions in question are by one and the same person. The Index of Pseudonyms and Initials provides an additional way for on Communication as Key to Success Relationship users of the database to mr birling, search for authors. Mcdonald. Though in many cases attributable items in the Gentleman's Magazine bear no signatures at all, tremendous numbers of others are signed in ways designed to conceal the identity of the contributor. Scholars familiar with eighteenth- and an inspector calls nineteenth-century periodicals know that in some cases contributors wrote simultaneously for several magazines or reviews and that occasionally they signed their work in various publications with the same pseudonyms. In order to assist researchers investigating other facets of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British periodical press, I have provided for easy reference an index of Essay as Key to Success Client-Trainer, pseudonyms and an inspector calls initials used by known contributors to the GM , dividing it for convenience into four parts. Part I, pseudonyms exclusive of symbols and Greek characters, I have arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the word or phrase (other than articles) used in illusions: of a reluctant messiah the signature. Calls Mr Birling. Part II, signatures in the form of initials (exclusive of Greek characters), requires a different system of determining sequence, since in many cases the letters used as signatures are simply the initials of the the adventures of a reluctant messiah, authors' own names. An Inspector. Therefore I have followed the method used in Kuist's Nichols File of alphabetizing sets of initials first according to the terminal letter in each signature and then in sequence according to reluctant messiah, the letters that precede it. Thus the entries for the letter A begin as follows: A., A.A., E.A., F.B.A., F.R.A., F.S.A., G.A., G.E.A., J.A., J.P.A., J.Y.A., etc.

Part III (pseudonyms and initials using Greek characters) begins with a list in alphabetical order of the signatures using Greek words or phrases followed by the handful of signatures consisting of Greek initials, the latter (like the entries in an inspector calls Part II) listed sequentially according to terminal letters. Part IV contains a very short list of signatures consisting of symbols, mainly patterns of on Communication as Key to Success for the Client-Trainer, asterisks. Most of the pseudonyms or sets of initials were used only once or twice by an inspector calls mr birling, any one particular contributor, while some of them (especially generic terms such as An Old Correspondent, An Observer, or Clericus) were used by more than one author. Of A Reluctant. To distinguish between signatures used rarely and mr birling those used frequently by any given contributor, I have arbitrarily designated as recurrent any signature that was used five or more times by the same person. Short titles used in the database are given below, followed by a list of other works consulted:

Abbott, John Lawrence. Samuel Johnson and 'The Life of Dr. Richard Mead.' Bulletin of the define recession, John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 12-27. -------. John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters . Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982. -------. The Making of the Johnsonian Canon. Johnson after Two Hundred Years . Ed. Paul J. Korshin. Philadelphia: U of an inspector mr birling, Pennsylvania P, 1986. 127-139.

Ackerman, Robert W., and Gretchen P. Ackerman. Sir Frederic Madden: A Biographical Sketch and Chaucer's Essay Bibliography . New York: Garland, 1979. Alumni Cantabrigienses . Ed. John Venn and J. A. Venn. Calls Mr Birling. 10 vols.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922-54. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the illusions: the adventures reluctant messiah, University of Oxford, 1500-1714. Ed. Joseph Foster. 4 vols. London, 1891-92. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1715-1886 . Ed. Joseph Foster. 4 vols.

London, 1887-88. Appleton, William W., and Kalman A. Burnim, eds. The Prompter: A Theatrical Paper (1734- 1736) by Aaron Hill and William Popple . New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1966. Banerji, Hiran Kumar. Henry Fielding: Playwright, Journalist, and Master of the Art of Fiction: His Life and Works . New York: Russell Russell, 1962.

Bate, W. J., and John M. Bullitt. Introduction to The Idler . The Idler and The Adventurer. Vol. 2 of The Yale Edition of the Works of an inspector mr birling, Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. xv-xxviii. Bate, W. J., and Albrecht B. Strauss.

Introduction to The Rambler . Vol. 3 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. xxi-xlii. Battestin, Martin C., and Ruthe R. Battestin. Henry Fielding: A Life . London: Routledge, 1989. Battestin, Martin C. New Essays by Henry Fielding: His Contributions to the Craftsman (1734-1739) and Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by Michael G. Farringdon . Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989.

Bernard, F. V. Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson. Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (1967): 176-180. -------. Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates. PMLA (Publications of the The Canterbury Tales, Modern Language Association of America) 82 (1967): 408-419.

Bertelsen, Lance. Have At You All: or, Bonnell Thornton's Journalism. Huntington Library Quarterly 44 (1981): 263-282. Baker, David Erskine, et al. Biographia Dramatica . 3 vols. London, 1812. Biography Database 1680-1830 . Ed. J. Mr Birling. Cannon and F. Robinson. Iron. CD-ROM.

3 discs. Newcastle upon Tyne: Romulus P, 1995-2000. Black, Jeremy. The English Press in the Eighteenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1987. Bloom, Edward A. Samuel Johnson in Grub Street . Providence: Brown UP, 1957. British Museum.

General Catalogue of Printed Books . 263 vols. Photolithographic ed. to 1955. An Inspector. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1959-66. Bond, Donald F. The Gentleman's Magazine. Modern Philology 38 (1940): 85-100. Bowles, William Lisle. The Poetical Works of William Lisle Bowles . 2 vols.

Edinburgh, 1855. Brett-James, Norman G. The Life of Peter Collinson, F.R.S., F.S.A. Geoffrey Tales Essay. London: published for an inspector calls mr birling the author by Edgar G. Dunstan, [1926]. Brewster, Dorothy. Joseph. Aaron Hill: Poet, Dramatist, Projector . New York: Columbia UP, 1913. Bronson, Bertrand H. Joseph Ritson, Scholar-at-Arms . 2 vols. Berkeley: U of California P, 1938.

Burke's Peerage and Baronetage . 105th ed. London: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1970. Carlson, C. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Lennart. The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine. Iron. Providence: Brown UP, 1938. Carnie, Robert Hay. Lord Hailes's Contributions to Contemporary Magazines. Studies in Bibliography 9 (1957): 233-244. Caskey, John Homer. The Life and Works of Edward Moore . Yale Studies in English 75.

Ed. An Inspector. Albert S. Cook. New Haven: Yale UP, 1927. Chalmers, Alexander. Define. The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and calls mr birling Biographical . 38 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66. Clifford, James L. Young Samuel Johnson . London: William Heinemann, 1955. -------. Johnson and Lauder. Philological Quarterly 54 (1975): 342-356.

Cole, Richard C. Recovering William James (fl. 1785-1797), English Writer. ELN: English Language Notes 36 (1999): 64-78. -------. William Tasker Revisited. Notes and Queries n.s. 46 (1999): 365-368. Courtney, William Prideaux, with David Nichol Smith. A Bibliography of who discovered iron, Samuel Johnson . Oxford Historical and Literary Studies 4. Ed. An Inspector. C. H. Firth and mcdonald introduction Walter Raleigh. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915.

Fielding, Henry. The Covent-Garden Journal and mr birling A Plan of the Universal Register-Office . Ed. Illusions: Of A Messiah. Bertrand A. Goldgar. Middleton, CN: Wesleyan UP, 1988. The Craftsman. Calls. By Caleb D'Anvers, of Gray's-Inn, Esq . [a reprint, omitting some numbers, of the iron element, Craftsman , 5 Dec. 1726-17 Apr. 1736]. 14 vols. London, 1731-37.

Dictionary of an inspector, American Biography . 1929 ed. Davis, Bertram H. A Proof of Eminence: The Life of Sir John Hawkins . Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973. de Montluzin, Emily Lorraine. The Anti-Jacobins, 1798-1800: The Early Contributors to the Anti-Jacobin Review. London: Macmillan, 1988. -----.

Attributions of Authorship in the British Critic during the Editorial Regime of Robert Nares, 1793-1813. Summary. Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 241-258. -----. Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by calls mr birling, George Smith of Wigton in Essay on Communication as Key to Success Relationship the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59. Calls. ANQ 14 (2001): 5-12. Dictionary of on Communication as Key to Success, National Biography . 1908-1909 ed. Burke, Bernard. A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire . London, 1883. English Catalogue of Books . . . , 1801-1836 . Ed. Mr Birling. Robert Alexander Peddie and Quintin Waddington. London: Publishers Circular, n.d.

Erwin, Timothy. The Life of Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter. Notes and Queries n.s. 30 (1983): 525-526. Fairer, David. Authorship Problems in The Adventurer . Review of English Studies 25 (1974): 137-151. Fleeman, J. D. Illusions: The Adventures Reluctant. A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson; Treating his published works from the beginnings to an inspector mr birling, 1984 . Prepared for Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Essay publication by James McLaverty.

2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 2000. Foster, Gretchen M. Pope Versus Dryden: A Controversy in Letters to The Gentleman's Magazine , 1789-1791 . English Literary Studies 44. Ed. Samuel L. Macey. Victoria: U of Victoria, 1989. Smollett, Tobias.

Poems, Plays, and an inspector mr birling The Briton. Ed. Byron Gassman and mcdonald O. M. Brack, Jr. Athens: U of calls mr birling, Georgia P, 1993. Goldgar, Bertrand A. Summary. Fielding, Sir William Yonge, and the 'Grub-Street Journal.' Notes and Queries n.s. 19 (1972): 226-227. -------. Pope and the Grub-street Journal . Modern Philology 74 (1976-77): 366-380. Grace, Matthew.

Introduction. The Lives of Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson together with Essays from The Gray's Inn Journal. An Inspector. By Arthur Murphy. Gainesville, FL: Scholars' Facsimiles Reprints, 1968. vii-xxiii. Gray, Charles Harold. Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795 . Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 1931. Green, Boylston. Possible Additions to the Johnson Canon. Andrew. Yale University Library Gazette 16 (1942): 70-79. Greene, D[onald] J. Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the calls mr birling, Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s.

3 (1952): 158-161. -------. Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine . PMLA (Publications of the the adventures of a, Modern Language Association of America) 74 (1959): 75-84. -------. An Inspector. The Development of the Johnson Canon. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in Honor of joseph, Alan Dugald McKillop . Ed. Mr Birling. Carroll Camden. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963. 407-427. -------.

Johnsonian Attributions by Alexander Chalmers. Notes and Queries n.s. As Key For The. 14 (1967): 180-181. Greene, Donald J., ed. Samuel Johnson: Political Writings . Vol. 10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of an inspector calls, Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. Griffith, Philip Mahone.

The Authorship of the Papers Signed 'A' in Hawkesworth's Adventurer : A Stronger Case for Dr. Richard Bathurst. Illusions: The Adventures Of A Reluctant. Tulane Studies in English 12 (1962): 63-70. -------. 'A Truly Elegant Work': The Contemporary Reputation of Hawkesworth's Adventurer . The Dress of Words: Essays on Restoration and Eighteenth Century Literature in calls Honor of Richmond P. Bond . Ed. Introduction. Robert B. White. Lawrence: U of Kansas P, 1978. 199-208. Haig, Robert L. The Gazetteer, 1735-1797: A Study in the Eighteenth-Century English Newspaper . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1960. Halkett, Samuel, and calls John Laing. Dictionary of of a reluctant, Anonymous and mr birling Pseudonymous English Literature . Rev.ed. Ed.

James Kennedy, et al. 9 vols. Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd, 1926-62. Harris, Michael. London Newspapers in the Age of Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the Modern English Press . Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1987. Harris, Robert. A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s . Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993. Hart, Edward. An Ingenious Editor: John Nichols and summary the Gentleman's Magazine . An Inspector Calls. Bucknell Review 10 (1962): 232-242.

Hart, Edward L., ed. Minor Lives: A Collection of Biographies by John Nichols . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1971. Headley, Henry. Poems and Other Pieces . London, 1786. Hillhouse, James T. The Grub-street Journal. Durham: Duke UP, 1928. Holt-White, Rashleigh. The Life and Letters of Gilbert White of Selborne . 2 vols. New York: Dutton, 1901.

Hoover, Benjamin Beard. Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in as Key for the Client-Trainer Relationship the Senate of Lilliput . An Inspector Calls. Berkeley: U of California P, 1953. Nichols, John. Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century . 8 vols. London, 1817-1858. General Index to the Gentleman's Magazine from the Year 1787 to 1818 . Illusions: The Adventures Messiah. London, 1821. Fielding, Henry. The Jacobite's Journal and Related Writings . Ed. W. B. An Inspector. Coley. [Middletown, CN]: Wesleyan UP, 1975.

Jones, Claude E. Charles Woodmason as a Poet. On Communication Client-Trainer Relationship. South Carolina Historical Magazine 59 (1958): 189-194. Kaminski, Thomas. The Early Career of Samuel Johnson . New York: Oxford UP, 1987. Kolb, Gwin J. More Attributions to calls mr birling, Dr. Johnson. Studies in English Literature 1500- 1900 . 1 (1961): 77-95. Kuist, James Marquis. The Gentleman's Magazine , 1754-1800: A Study of Its Development as a Vehicle for the Discussion of Literature. Diss. Duke U, 1965.

-------. Geoffrey The Canterbury Essay. The Works of John Nichols: An Introduction . New York: AMS, 1968. -------. An Inspector Mr Birling. The Gentleman's Magazine in the Folger Library: The History and introduction Significance of the Nichols Family Collection. Studies in Bibliography 29 (1976): 307-322.

-------. 'What, does she still adorn this dreary scene?' Nichols' Problems with Obituary Notices in The Gentleman's Magazine . Eighteenth-Century Life 4 (1978): 76-78. -------. The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine : Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at the Folger Library . Mr Birling. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982. -------. A Collaboration in Learning: The Gentleman's Magazine and Its Ingenious Contributors. Joseph Andrew. Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 302-317. Lacy, Michael. Unpublished research. Lams, Victor J., Jr.

The 'A' Papers in the Adventurer : Bonnell Thornton, not Dr. Bathurst, Their Author. Studies in calls Philology 64 (1967): 83-96. Leed, Jacob. Two New Pieces by Johnson in the Gentleman's Magazine ? Modern Philology 54 (1957): 221-229. -------. Samuel Johnson and the 'Gentleman's Magazine': An Adjustment to the Canon. Notes and Queries 102 (1957): 210-213.

-------. Samuel Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine : Studies in the Canon of His Miscellaneous Prose Writings, 1738-1744. Diss. Chicago, 1958. -------. As Key For The Client-Trainer Relationship. Two Notes on Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine . Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 54 (1960): 101-110.

Records of the Honorable Society of mr birling, Lincoln's Inn . Define Recession. Part A. Admissions . Ed. W. P. Baildon. An Inspector. 2 vols. London, 1896. Nichols, John. Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century . 9 vols. London, 1812-15.

McAdam, E. Andrew Summary. L., Jr. New Essays by Dr. Johnson. Review of English Studies 18 (1942): 197-207. McAdam, E. L., Jr., and George Milne, eds. Samuel Johnson: Poems . An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Vol. Illusions: Reluctant Messiah. 6 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1964. Marcuse, Michael J. The Gentleman's Magazine and the Lauder/Milton Controversy. Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 81 (1978): 179-209.

Maty, Matthew, ed. Miscellaneous Works of the late Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of an inspector, Chesterfield. . . . Chaucer's Essay. To which are prefixed, Memoirs of an inspector calls, his Life. . Who Discovered Iron. . . By M. Maty, M.D. 2 vols. An Inspector. London, 1777. Michel, Francisque. Joseph Andrew Summary. Biblioth#x00E8;que Anglo-Saxonne . Paris, 1837. Monkman, Kenneth.

Did Sterne Contrive to Publish a 'Sermon' in 1738? The Shandean: An Annual Devoted to Laurence Sterne and His Works . 4 (1992): 111-133. New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature . Ed. Calls Mr Birling. George Watson and I. R. Willison. 5 vols. Geoffrey The Canterbury Tales Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1969-77. Nobbe, George. The North Briton : A Study in an inspector calls Political Propaganda . New York: Columbia UP, 1939. National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints . London: Mansell, 1968-81.

Osborn, James M. Dr. Johnson's 'Intimate Friend.' TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 9 October 1953, p. 652. Pailler, Albert. Edward Cave et le Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1754) . Joseph. 2 vols. Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Theses, 1975. Park, James Allan. Memoirs of William Stevens, Esq. Treasurer of Queen Anne's Bounty . 4th ed.

London, 1825. Pepper, Robert D. Gilbert White and the 'Gentleman's Magazine.' TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 31 March-6 April 1989, p. Calls Mr Birling. 339. -------. Gilbert White's Tiny Mouse: A Sceptical Objection in 1789. Notes and mcdonald Queries n.s. 37 (1990): 315-317. Pettit, Alexander. The Grub-street Journal and the Politics of Anachronism. Philological Quarterly 69 (1990): 435-451.

Pitcher, Edward W. R. Discoveries in Periodicals, 1720-1820: Facts and an inspector mr birling Fictions . Studies in British and American Magazines 7. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2000. -------. The Lady's Monthly Museum First Series : 1798-1806: An Annotated Index of Signatures and mcdonald introduction Ascriptions . An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Studies in British and American Magazines 2. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2000. Polwhele, Richard. Traditions and Recollections . 2 vols.

London, 1826. Powell, L. F. Introduction to on Communication to Success Client-Trainer Relationship, The Adventurer . The Idler and The Adventurer. Vol. 2 of The Yale Edition of the an inspector mr birling, Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. 323-338.

Nichols, John. Preface. General Index to the Gentleman's Magazine from the Year 1787 to 1818 . London, 1821. Ram, Titia. Magnitude in Marginality: Edward Cave and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754, Containing a First-Line Index of all the Poems, With Notes and Essay as Key for the Client-Trainer Relationship References on Authorship . N.p.: Gottmann Fainsilber Katz, 1999. Johnson, Samuel. The Rambler . Vols. An Inspector Calls. 3-5 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . Ed. W. J. Mcdonald. Bate and Albrecht B. Strauss.

New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. Reading, J. Poems by Johnson. Calls. TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 11 September 1937, p. 656. Reiman, Donald H. The Romantics Reviewed: Contemporary Reviews of British Romantic Writers . Summary. 9 vols. New York: Garland, 1972. Rollins, Hyder Edward, ed., The Keats Circle . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1965. Russell, Norma. A Bibliography of William Cowper to 1837 . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1963. Shawcross, John T. Milton in an inspector mr birling the Gentleman's Magazine : A Correction to de Montluzin. Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 274.

Shellabarger, Samuel. Lord Chesterfield and His World . 1951. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1971. Sherbo, Arthur. Two Additions to the Johnson Canon. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 52 (1953): 543-548. -------. English Sentimental Drama . East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1957.

-------. Illusions: Of A. Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755. Johnsonian Studies . Ed. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Magdi Wahba. Cairo: n.p., 1962. The Adventures Messiah. 133-159. Sherbo, Arthur, ed. New Essays by Arthur Murphy . An Inspector. N.P.: Michigan State UP, 1963.

Sherbo, Arthur. From the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Shenstone, Swift, Warton, Prior, Byron, Beckford. Studies in Bibliography 35 (1982): 285-305. -------. John Coleridge and the Gentleman's Magazine . Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 (1983): 86-93. -------. Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Geoffrey Essay Bibliography 37 (1984): 228-233. -------.

The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and the brothers White. Archives of Natural History 12 (1985): 23-29. -------. More from the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton. Studies in Bibliography 40 (1987): 164-174. -------. The Earliest (?) Critic of the Ireland Shakespeare Forgeries.

Notes and Queries n.s. 35 (1988): 498-500. -------. An Inspector Mr Birling. Further Additions to the Nichols File of the who discovered iron element, Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 42 (1989): 249-254. -------. Calls. Nil Nisi Bonum : Samuel Johnson in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1785- 1800. Introduction. College Literature 16 (1989): 168-181.

-------. The Achievement of calls, George Steevens . New York: Peter Lang, 1990. -------. Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), 'P.B.C.': his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine . Archives of on Communication as Key for the Client-Trainer, Natural History 22 (1995): 51-59. -------. Letters to Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 . Studies in British History 44. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997.

-------. William Hamilton Reid (fl. 1786-1824): A Forgotten Poet. Studies in Scottish Literature 29 (1997): 245-257. Sherbo, Arthur, and mr birling Isobel Grundy. A 'Spurious' Poem by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu? Notes and Queries 27 (1980): 407-410. Sherbo, Arthur. Unpublished research. Smith, Joseph.

A Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books, or Books Written by Members of the Society of Friends, Commonly Called Quakers . 2 vols. and supplement. London, 1867-1893. Smith, Marion B. Define. South Carolina and The Gentleman's Magazine . South Carolina Historical Magazine 95 (1994): 102-129. Spector, Robert Donald. English Literary Periodicals and the Climate of Opinion during the mr birling, Seven Years' War . The Hague: Mouton Co., 1966. Strout, Alan Lang. Geoffrey The Canterbury Tales Essay. A Bibliography of calls mr birling, Articles in mcdonald Blackwood's Magazine, 1817-1825 . Calls Mr Birling. Library Bulletin , no. On Communication To Success Client-Trainer. 5. Lubbock: Texas Technological College, 1959. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 . An Inspector Mr Birling. Historical Guides to Essay on Communication to Success, the World's Periodicals and Newspapers.

Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983. Sutherland, W. O. S., Jr. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Essay Forms in the Prompter . Studies in the Early English Periodical . Ed. Richmond P. Bond. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1957. 135- 49. Swift, Jonathan. Element. The Poems of Jonathan Swift . Ed. An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Harold Williams.

2nd ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1958. Thomas, Peter D. G. John Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty . Oxford: Clarendon P, 1996. Tierney, James E. Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the Annual Register , and the Gentleman's Magazine . Huntington Library Quarterly 42 (1978): 57-72.

Todd, William B. A Bibliographical Account of recession, The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754. Studies in Bibliography 18 (1965): 81-93. Fielding, Henry. Calls Mr Birling. The True Patriot and andrew summary Related Writings . Ed. W. B. Coley. [Middletown, CN]: Wesleyan UP, 1987.

Vance, John A. Joseph and Thomas Warton . Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. -------. Johnson's Historical Reviews. Mr Birling. Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism . Ed. Prem Nath.

Troy, New York: Whitston, 1987. Mcdonald. 63-84. Varey, Simon, ed. Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to the Craftsman. An Inspector. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1982. Varey, Simon. The Craftsman. Prose Studies 16 (1993): 58-77.

Watson, Melvin R. Magazine Serials and the Essay Tradition 1746-1820 . Louisiana State University Studies. Ed. Essay As Key Client-Trainer. Richard J. Russell. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1956. Watt, Robert. Bibliotheca Britannica . Edinburgh, 1824. -------. Calls Mr Birling. Dr. Mcdonald. Johnson and Dr.

Hawkesworth: A Literary Friendship. New Rambler: Journal of the Johnson Society of London 111 (1971): 2-21. -------. Calls. Dr. Johnson and the Amazons. Philological Quarterly 44 (1965): 484-495. -------. Dr. Johnson and the Making of 'The Life of Father Paul Sarpi.' Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 48 (1966): 255-267. -------.

John Hawkesworth: Friend of Samuel Johnson and who discovered iron element Editor of Captain Cook's Voyages and calls of the Gentleman's Magazine . Eighteenth Century Studies 3 (1970): 339-350. -------. No 'Dialect of France': Samuel Johnson's Translations from the French. Essay Relationship. University of Toronto Quarterly 36 (1967): 129-140. -------. Samuel Johnson, John Hawkesworth, and the rise of the mr birling, Gentleman's magazine [ sic ], 1738-1773.

Vol. Mcdonald. 1 of Transactions of the Fourth International Congress on the Enlightenment . An Inspector. Comprising vol. 151 of Studies on Voltaire and illusions: the adventures of a reluctant messiah the Eighteenth Century . Ed. Theodore Besterman. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1976.

31-46. -------. Samuel Johnson's 'A Panegyric on Dr. Mr Birling. Morin.' Romance Notes 8 (1966): 55-57. -------. New Evidence on the Pamphilus Letters. Modern Philology 62 (1964): 42-44. -------. A Note on Two Attributions to Johnson. Mcdonald Introduction. Notes and Queries n.s.

11 (1964): 64. -------. The First Magazine: A History of the an inspector mr birling, Gentleman's Magazine . Define. By C. Lennart Carlson [review]. Journal of English and mr birling Germanic Philology 38 (1939): 637-639. -------. Samuel Johnson, Journalist. Humanities Association Review 27 (1976): 441- 457.

-------. Portrait of a Grub: Samuel Boyse. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 7 (1967): 415-425. -------. Some Reprintings of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 17 (1964): 210-214.

-------. 'The Last of the Geoffrey The Canterbury, Learned Printers': John Nichols and the Bowyer-Nichols Press. English Studies 65 (1984): 11-22. -------. Christopher Smart, Reader of Obituaries [in the Gentleman's Magazine ]. MLN [ Modern Language Notes ] 71 (1956): 177-182. -------. John Kynaston (1728-83), A Neglected Shakespearean.

Shakespeare Quarterly 48 (1997): 80-83. -------. John Nichols's Notes in the Scholarly Commentary of an inspector calls, Others. Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 318-322. -------. Define. Johnson's 'Falling Houses.' Essays in Criticism 26 (1976): 376-378. -------. Samuel Johnson and certain poems in the May 1747 Gentleman's Magazine . Review of English Studies n.s.

17 (1966): 382-390. -------. Samuel Johnson's Critical Opinions: A Reexamination . An Inspector Calls Mr Birling. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1995. -------. Samuel Johnson's 'Essay' on Du Halde's Description of China . Papers on Language and Literature: A Journal for Scholars and Critics of Language and Literature 2 (1966): 372-380. -------. Samuel Pegge, Thomas Holt White, and Piers Plowman. The Yearbook of Geoffrey The Canterbury Essay, Langland Studies 1 (1987): 122-128. -------.

Studies in the Johnson Circle . Locust Hill Literary Studies Series 25. West Cornwall, CN: Locust Hill P, 1998. -------. Thomas Holt-White on an inspector calls mr birling, Johnson's Lives of Prior and Milton. ANQ 13 (2000): 24-27. 3. GM 20 (1750): 208 and GM 22 (1752): 560-561, respectively.

10. GM 50 (1780): 266-268, 312-314, 367-369. 12. GM 63-i (1793): 85-86; 63-ii (1793): 963-964. 15. C. Who Discovered. Lennart Carlson, The First Magazine: A History of the mr birling, Gentleman's Magazine (Providence: Brown UP, 1938) 84, n. Geoffrey The Canterbury. 3. 17. GM 1 (1731): 26; GM 2 (1732): 584 and 7 (1737): 250-251; and GM 2 (1732): 931-932, 981, respectively. 19. See Jeremy Black, The English Press in the Eighteenth Century (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1987); Michael Harris, London Newspapers in an inspector mr birling the Age of Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the Modern English Press (Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1987); and Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993). 20.

The GM 's rival, John Wilford's London Magazine , printed its own version of the parliamentary debates, commencing the same month. 21. See for the adventures reluctant messiah example accounts of the GM 's re-creation of the parliamentary debates in Carlson, First Magazine 87-104; Edward A. Bloom, Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957) 51-62; and Sir John Hawkins, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. D. , 2nd ed. (London, 1787) 95. 22. James Boswell, Life of Johnson , ed. R. W. Chapman (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1953) 1308. 23. The GM 's rival, the London Magazine , took the similar precaution of renaming its feature Debates in the Political Club, a fictitious forensic society. 24. The same sentence was imposed upon Thomas Astley, conductor of the London Magazine . 25.

The union list, like my first GM electronic database, includes approximately 300 reviews bearing the signature X. Mr Birling. which appeared from April 1767 through March 1773 and which have been proven the work of John Hawkesworth. The complete X. list had never appeared in print before its inclusion in my Attributions of Authorship . . . Mcdonald Introduction. , 1731-77 . . . Calls Mr Birling. , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Donald D. Eddy, following up on a claim in Charles Harold Gray's Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795 (New York: Columbia UP, 1931) 171- 172, was the Essay to Success, first to publish convincing evidence that Hawkesworth wrote the X. reviews. (See Eddy's John Hawkesworth: Book Reviewer in the Gentleman's Magazine , Philological Quarterly 43 [1964]: 223-238.) G. J. An Inspector Mr Birling. Finch (John Hawkesworth, 'The Gentleman's Magazine', and 'The Annual Register,' Notes and Queries 22 [1975]: 17-18), James F. Tierney (Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the Annual Register , and the Gentleman's Magazine , Huntington Library Quarterly 42 [1978]: 57-72), and John L. Abbott ( John Hawkesworth 213, n. 10) corroborate Gray's and Eddy's claim. I am grateful to Arthur Sherbo for correcting two X. items ( GM 40 [1770]: 510-511 and Geoffrey Essay 616-617) and one J.H. item ( GM 24 [1754]: 413-415) I had tentatively and erroneously attributed to John Hawkesworth in Attributions of Authorship . An Inspector. . . , 1731-77 . . . As Key For The Client-Trainer Relationship. , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Calls. Those three items have been excluded from the union list, as they were from my first GM electronic database. 26. See for example GM 26 (1756): 71-72 and mcdonald 29 (1759): 154; 52 (1782): 520; 54-ii (1784): 711; and 69-ii (1799): 876, respectively. 27. GM 34 (1764): plate facing p. 632. 28. Mr Birling. GM 43 (1773): 589-596, 547-652; 44 (1774): 17-22, 68-74, 111-115.

29. Reluctant. GM 57-ii (1787): 1009-1011, 1110-1112. 34. Such was John Walcot's characterization of Nichols. (Julian Pooley, review of Emily Lorraine de Montluzin's Daily Life in Georgian England as Reported in the Gentleman's Magazine [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2002), in Reviews in History , published online by the Institute of Historical Research, February 2002, p. 6.) 35. The GM 's circulation, approximately 3,000 copies in 1746, rose to some 4,450 by an inspector calls, 1800. (Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 [Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983]: 137-138; Richard D. Element. Altick, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800-1900 [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1957] 392.) 46. An Inspector Mr Birling. James M. Kuist, The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at element, the Folger Library (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982) 4. 52. Kuist, Nichols File 6, 13-20.

53. GM 56-ii (1786): 758-760, 840-842, 958-960, 1057. 54. GM 66-i (1796): 451-454; 66-ii (1796): 627-630, 803-807. 55. GM 66-ii (1796): 891-895, 979-982, 1081-1085. 56. John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century (9 vols.; London, 1812- 15) 6: 259. 57. Kuist, Nichols File 9-10, 11-12 (n.

42). 58. Certain exceptions are instructive. Calls. Kuist assigns to Gough the items in GM 72-ii (1802): 833-850 (the various works on these pages). However, the Gough contributions in fact end with a review that concludes on p. 850, the other items that follow on define, p. An Inspector. 850 having been written by John Nichols, to The Canterbury, whom Kuist correctly attributes them. Conversely, in the case of the an inspector, bloc-attribution of items in GM 59-i (1789): 141-144 to Gough, I made the decision to the adventures of a reluctant messiah, include in Gough's list a plethora of very short reviews on p. 144, since they all concern the Regency Question, as do the reviews on p. 143. Mr Birling. I have not, however, attributed to Gough the review of Gilbert White's Selborne , which spills over onto the next page. 59. GM 62-ii [Supplement to 1792]: 1195-1196.

60. I have compiled the Johnson entries in the union list from twentieth-century studies of the introduction, Johnson canon (beginning with Courtney and Smith), as those twentieth-century studies have incorporated all previous attempts (by Boswell, Sir John Hawkins, and others) to construct a reasonably reliable Johnson canon. 61. Sir John Hawkins, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (2d ed., rev.; London, 1787), p. 132. George Steevens's Account of the Writings of Dr. Samuel Johnson, including some Incidents of his Life ( European Magazine 7 [1785]: 9) and John Gough Nichols's The Autobiography of an inspector, Sylvanus Urban. Chapter VIII ( GM 202 [1857]: 285) disagree with Hawkins's claim. 63. The Craftsman, Prose Studies 16 [April 1993]: 74, n. 2. 64.

Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson, Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (May 1967): 176. 65. Alexander Chalmers, Historical and Biographical Preface to The Connoisseur , The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and Biographical (38 vols.; Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66) 25 (1864): 15-16, 34. 66.

Simon Varey, Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to the Craftsman (Oxford: Clarendon UP, 1982) xxiv-xxv makes a strong case that the initials appended to the essays in the 1737 reprint edition of the Craftsman , when combined with corroborative evidence, point convincingly to who discovered iron element, Bolingbroke's authorship of the Craftsman papers signed O and mr birling strongly suggest William Pulteney's authorship of the C papers and Nicholas Amhurst's authorship of the Essay on Communication Client-Trainer, D papers. Varey also states that Nicholas Amhurst, editor from the mr birling, start, appears after 1737 to have been the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman until his death in April 1742 (Varey 82: xv). Joseph. However, Martin C. Battestin in his New Essays by Henry Fielding: His Contributions to the Craftsman (1734-1739) and Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by Michael G. Farringdon (Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989) convincingly attributes a number of essays in the Craftsman , 1738-39, to Henry Fielding. In light of Battestin's evidence, I believe that Varey's conjecture that Amhurst was the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman from 1738 through early 1742 is not strong enough to justify making any attributions to Amhurst during that period, for which there exists no collected edition to provide the corroborative evidence of initials. 67. Originally edited jointly by John Martyn and Richard Russel, the Grub-Street Journal became Russel's responsibility after Martyn retired from the enterprise to become professor of botany at mr birling, Cambridge. (James T. Hillhouse, The Grub-Street Journal [Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1928] 40 [n.

50] believes that number 67 [15 April 1731] was the Geoffrey Chaucer's, last issue to which Martyn contributed.) Russel remained sole editor of the Grub-Street Journal until he resigned his post in late 1735, whereupon his place apparently was taken by James Miller. (Hillhouse 30 [n. 38], 45-46) Nineteenth-century commentators, swayed by the letter designations included in Russel's preface to mr birling, his collected edition of the periodical's first twenty months ( Memoirs of the Society of Grub Street , 2 vols. [London, 1737]), tended to attribute early contributions signed B[avius] to andrew summary, Martyn and those signed M[aevius] to Russel. Calls. As Alexander Pettit notes, It is now generally accepted (and is suggested by the 'Preface') that both Russel and John Martyn . . . used 'Bavius' [until Martyn's departure] and that Russel alone used 'Maevius.' (Alexander Pettit, The Grub-street Journal and the Politics of who discovered element, Anachronism, Philological Quarterly 69 (Fall 1990]: 448, n. Mr Birling. 6) Russel and Martyn recruited the services of a number of other contributors, a few of of a messiah, whom have been identified, notably Rev. Joseph Trapp. Calls Mr Birling. Recent scholarship has vastly diminished the role in the Grub- Street Journal formerly ascribed to Pope, both in terms of define recession, influencing the day-to-day conduct of the journal or contributing to its weekly numbers. (See Bertrand A. Goldgar, Pope and the Grub-street Journal , Modern Philology 74 (1976-77): 366-380.) 68.

Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993) 50. 71. GM 16 [1746]: 540, quoting from Old England , no. 179 (4 October 1746). 72. Harris, Patriot Press 50, n. Calls Mr Birling. 5; Martin C. Battestin and Ruthe R. Battestin, Henry Fielding: A Life (London: Routledge, 1989) 429.

73. Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 , Historical Guides to the World's Periodicals and define recession Newspapers (Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983) 346.