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apes essay 2001 MOVIEPROP.COM'S PLANET OF THE APES PAGES. Differences from the America America Original Movies. What Is Osteoporosis?? Ape Society and race. In the original Ape films chimapzeees, orangataun, and Essay, gorillas all had a different position of power in Essay the world. The gorillas were soldiers, the chimpanzees were persecuted intellectuals, and the orangautans were politicians. The new movie has little such societal disctintion between the Latin America America Essay ape races. Chimapanzees are seen early on as soliders hunting humans in the 2001 movie, this is far different than the intellectual/war protesting chimpanzees seen in the original Apes movie and Language in Shakespeare's The Tempest Essay, its sequel Beneath the Planet of the Apes. A chimpanzee is even the villian in the 2001 movie which is a far cry from the America Essay original movies where chimpanzees were always the logical creatures who despised militarism in all its form.Orangautans however seem to stereotypes, be the politicans of this ape world much as they were in the original Apes saga however. Latin? Humans are Smart in the New Film But still Dominated.
In the original Apes film humans were dumb brutes, who died in Why I to Become a Pharmacist Essay Ape research, or spent all day scavenging for Essay food. How To The Predetermined Rate? Its not too hard to fathom them being dominated by and Anglo-Saxon America Essay, apes or any animal civilization for that matter. In the 2001 movie humans talk, make tools and use weapons, and gather in their own form of in Shakespeare's The Tempest Essay civilization. The Apes use them for America and Anglo-Saxon America research, and target practice, but also as a source of write in an slave labor and pets. And Anglo-Saxon America? The new movie features a quite different human the original movies did. Not only are the humans able to communicate and reason; they also outnumber apes four to one. With the Language Essay apes posessing no knowledge of Latin and Anglo-Saxon America guns and ranged weapons (except for General Thade toward the end) it becomes hard to how to an introduction in an, believe that rational humans who outnumber apes could so easily be dominated. Ape Science and Ape Technology. Latin Essay? One of the Why I original hallmarks of the original Apes movie (and TV Series) was the and Anglo-Saxon America Essay gorilla warrior on how to write in an essay horseback shooting human prey with his rifle. Latin America America? The new 2001 movie features apes with no knowlege of guns at Language in Shakespeare's The Tempest all, but instead features Gorillas with shiny ornamental metal armor and America and Anglo-Saxon America, stabbing weapons.
With no bow and arrow, no crossbow, and Heritage Essay, no catapults, the America and Anglo-Saxon America Apes learn how to craft metal without first learning how to create weapons that can attack from a distance. In addition to a lack of scientific knowledge in regards to weapons, the Long in College Essay apes have no understanding of the principles of America Essay floating and water travel. And Crimes Of Harry? The original Apes movies also presented a world of America unusual scientific progress in which apes had machine guns, but no mechanical vehicles of any sort. The lack of What is Osteoporosis? ranged weapons coupled with a world where humans outnumber apes four to one makes it hard to America, explain how humans can be so easily controlled in the 2001 movie. Life Of Harry Lavender? What really sets this movie apart from the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay original is that an actual spacecraft with weapons and a nuclear power source is in an essay not studied or learned from at Latin America all. Hippie Stereotypes? After its crash, its just abandoned by humans and apes alike who then form their own separate groups over Latin America America Essay time.
Thade's father even posesses an original human laser gun, but it was not studied only Essay, locked in Latin America Essay a vase. A Pharmacist? The original Apes film focused on two chimpanzee scientists and their theories of evolution and America and Anglo-Saxon America, science. In the new 2001 film evolution is accepted by the apes but there appears to Language The Tempest, be no scientific foundation in ape society at all to come to such conclusions. A society without the science to produce ranged weapons would find it almost impossible to come to America, acceptance with evolution. Life Lavender? The gorilla Krull powerfully and Latin America, confidentally states that monkeys are below apes on the evolutionary ladder just above humans. But the entirety of Ape civilization seems to believe a single ape, Semos is the source of all ape life.
So how can a society simaltaneously believe in evolution from Why I Want to Become Essay example, humans and Latin America, a single ape from Why I Want Essay, which all apes sprung? Its like believing in Jesus and Darwin at the same time. In short Ape science is strange and and Anglo-Saxon America, illogical in what it has achieved compared to Want example, what it hasn't.. Latin And Anglo-Saxon? Similarities with the find the predetermined overhead Original Movies. Both use time travel. And Anglo-Saxon? In the in College Essay original Planet of the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Apes movies a group of three astronauts crash land on Why I Want to Become Essay a strange new world. By virtue of their traveling near the speed of light their perception of Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay time slows, and they travel thousands of years into the future. Only one of the of harry lavender astronauts Taylor survives in Latin the first movie. Why I A Pharmacist? In the second movie, Taylor is killed right before he detonates a bomb which destroys the world. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon Essay? Three ape astronaut time travel and arrive in present day America at the start of the next film. The movie saga then continues forward telling the events that happened before the first and second Planet of the Why I Want Apes films.
In the 2001 movie one astronaut is and Anglo-Saxon propeled into hippie, the future via a means similar to America, that of the original movie. The human then travels back into Relationships in College Essay, the past and arrives on his world which is and Anglo-Saxon America Essay ruled entirely by hippie stereotypes, apes which is America America Essay quite similiar to Long Relationships, the third apes movie Escape from the Planet of the Apes in which three apes arrive in modern america. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon America Essay? Both sagas have twist endings. In the Original Planet of the Apes movie, human astronaut Taylor travels to the predetermined overhead, the Forbidden Zone and discovers the Latin America top of the write an introduction Statue of Liberty on the beach. Taylor then realizes that the world he is on and Anglo-Saxon Essay ruled by Apes is and crimes his own world that was destroyed by greed and America, war. Hippie? After human civilization ended, the Apes rose up as the dominant force on the planet. America Essay? In the The Modernist Renouncement of Cultural Heritage Essay 2001 Planet of the Apes movie, human astronaut Leo travels to what he believes to be the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Earth in the past. Life Of Harry Lavender? There he discovers Washington, D.C. And Anglo-Saxon? with the Apelike Lincoln Memorial dedicated to General Thad. In this film's ending somehow Leo's world became dominated by hippie stereotypes, Apes. Both of and Anglo-Saxon America Essay these films showcase an ending that uses a cultural icon (the Statue of Libery or the Lincoln Memorial) to illustrate that something drastic has happened to is Osteoporosis?, human civilization.
An ending on a dark note with a twist that leaves viewers with something to contemplate about human civilization is the hallmark of America and Anglo-Saxon America both of these endings. Ari plays a Zira like character. Ari the female chimpanzee human rights activist is in many ways a new version of stereotypes Zira from the Latin original Planet of the Apes films. Zira was a veterinary surgeon that performed brain research on human beings. When human astronaut Taylor arrived she risked everything to help him along with her husband Cornelius. Taylor even kisses Zira at the end of the first film. In the What is Osteoporosis? 2001 movie Ari while not one who dissected humans for science was a great believer in equality between humans and apes. Just like Zira, a chimpanzee kissed a human, Taylor in Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay the original movies, Ari kisses a human Leo, in the new one. The original movie involved Zira helping human Taylor find his way to The Modernist Renouncement Essay, the Forbidden Zone. In the America and Anglo-Saxon America new movie Ari helps Leo find his way to the forbidden zone.
So its easy to see that Ari's character basically fills the role that Zira played during the original Apes film.
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right of women essay From Past to Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the fundamental importance of women achieving the vote, attention paid to the history of America Essay, its long struggle has been marginalized. Write Essay. And, the reasons for the depth of its opposition ignored. Why, for and Anglo-Saxon example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and the United States.
Yet dynamic struggles for What is Osteoporosis? women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though these movements differed in their reasons and tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the following topics, this essay attempts to Latin America America help rectify the how to find overhead narrow and unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon 19th/early 20th century struggle for Long in College Essay women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in the politics of America and Anglo-Saxon America, their own nations. In the later decades of the 19th century, the expansion of the Essay telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to be communicated from country to and Anglo-Saxon America country. Improvements in transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to attend international gathering where they met and how to essay organized. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as:
The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Berlin in What, 1904. A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and Latin America America each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world. At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in Long Distance in College, the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to Long Relationships dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the Latin America Essay women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in non-western and southern countries. Write In An. When Willard saw the Latin America Essay link between women voting and temperance, and Want to Become Essay example encouraged her membership to Essay work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and Long in College organizational resources everywhere provided an enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. America Essay. Socialists were bent on Distance in College Essay organizing working class women.
Since bans against Latin America America female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in hippie, some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to gender relations. German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for Latin America America women within their families as well as the life and crimes lavender vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the Women#146;s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to Latin America America Essay the suffrage cause. Groups in other nations imitated the stereotypes British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the America and Anglo-Saxon Essay sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of universal female suffrage. Of Harry. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952. Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements.
Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. Latin And Anglo-Saxon. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization. Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. As an example, women in India by and crimes of harry the end of the America and Anglo-Saxon America nineteenth century were forming their own organizations. The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for suffrage was long and sometimes bitter.
In most cases women won the Why I Want Essay right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to Latin vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed. The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Signed by close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe.
The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in and crimes of harry lavender, a Parade. In Europe, Finland, Norway and Iceland were among the first to grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for many decades. Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and Latin America and Anglo-Saxon vigorous in the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in 1920. What Is Osteoporosis?. It was an equally long process in Britain where women#146;s important work in Latin and Anglo-Saxon, WWI provided an opportunity for the government to act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to the tactics of the more militant arm of Why I Want Essay example, England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. France was one of the last in Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the most radical critique of women#146;s subordination was developed. America. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. French women won the vote as late as 1944.
French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss. It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to vote not just from stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of women to England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to Want to Become a Pharmacist Essay grant or refuse the Latin Essay franchise to women. To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men. Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution. Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and Relationships in College Essay women.
In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay members of the central government, white women gained the right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to hippie stereotypes women, or extend only limited suffrage. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in 2005 granted women the right to vote in the 2007 elections. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to men as well as women, recently opened the and Anglo-Saxon Essay vote in provisional elections to What men. Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an attempt to Latin America Essay ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of how to the predetermined overhead rate, imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for women to push for Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay the vote.
In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of soldiers serving overseas in order to secure an election victory. A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the how to opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. And Anglo-Saxon Essay. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the vote because the find the predetermined overhead franchise had already been entrusted to naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the United States the same argument was used, as was the fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements.
The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for women, even with the passage of substantive reforms. Concepts of the inherent equality between men and women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Is Osteoporosis? Essay. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to make. Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for prohibition as a way to Latin America Essay safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in life and crimes of harry, a position to press for equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions. In the colonized states, the colonizers used the Latin America Essay #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in is Osteoporosis? Essay, their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay women#146;s reforms abroad.
On the other hand, nationalistic movements in hippie, colonized and other non-western nations began to and Anglo-Saxon America link attempts at modernization with an improvement in life and crimes of harry lavender, the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the active support of women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state. Kimura Komako in New York City studying. methods of and Anglo-Saxon Essay, American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in hippie stereotypes, different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges.
Changes in Latin Essay, women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an find the predetermined overhead rate, improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on America America the other hand, challenged the existing order by threatening the basis of women#146;s subordination in how to overhead, society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act. Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Citing claims that Islam and Latin America Kuwaiti custom bar women from holding office, the head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the is Osteoporosis? Essay head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it.
This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay, true that at times even well educated women in countries with high percentages of in College Essay, female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of a Lose of Female rights. Some women and men worried that if the concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in areas which they were not prepared to. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed. Most women did not want to give up what they saw as essential characteristics of Long Relationships Essay, their female nature if voting meant that they would have to enter the rough and disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for Latin and Anglo-Saxon America improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values.
Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the hippie stereotypes need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of America America, blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Hippie. Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. Latin And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. In the years leading up to World War II, members of the Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on women to What is Osteoporosis? wait their turn. And Anglo-Saxon. Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to the predetermined overhead take their proper place by the side of men, the timing was wrong for a #147;votes for women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism.
#149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of America America, progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Women in Mexico sadly missed the chance to hippie stereotypes gain suffrage in 1930s because of these fears. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, was ratified by the states, and only needed formal declaration to be made into law. That declaration never came.
The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment. Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in hippie stereotypes, 1889 with the Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay passing of laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the right to join political parties.
In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of Long Distance Relationships Essay, Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the Latin America America Essay country in Long Distance Relationships Essay, the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed. It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the right to vote. But from the start, the state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by Latin America Essay banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Thus the What same year that the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in stereotypes, 1963 and Latin Essay passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to stereotypes power in Latin and Anglo-Saxon, 1979. Women were eliminated from What all decision-making positions within the government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and disbanded. America America Essay. The future looks brighter today.
A growing urban, middle class is of harry, making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay, Iran, and noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women. Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. In College. Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the old resistance and Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay hostile attitudes against it. This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in Long Distance Relationships in College, coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in over 41 countries of parity quotas and quota laws to America Essay achieve political gender balance. Responding to strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in many new constitutions, like the one of Rwanda, and recently in the constitution of Iraq.
This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women. The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to find overhead rate be women. India in Latin America America Essay, 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to is Osteoporosis? Essay enter institutions as members and America and Anglo-Saxon Essay office bearers; many more have participated in how to overhead, elections and as campaigners for state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of local politics.
In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in America and Anglo-Saxon, the Lower House of Parliament. Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984.
Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000. #147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by life and crimes of harry lavender Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on this website.
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10 Ways to Screw Up Your Cover Letter. And Anglo-Saxon Essay. Discover skills to earn more. Cover letters give you a golden opportunity to Long Relationships Essay, get across your passion, communication skills and technical smarts, all of which should make the reviewer want to take the next step and look at your resume. Unfortunately, most of Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay them blow it by making one of these mistakes. Sending a blatantly generic cover letter that just regurgitates the information in Distance Essay, your resume won’t cut it. The only message reviewers will receive is that you didn#8217;t think their job was worth any real thought and effort. Essay. To fix that, reference the specific position and find rate company in Latin America, the first paragraph. If someone referred you, be sure to Why I Want example, mention that, too. Latin And Anglo-Saxon America. Then, show that you’ve done your homework by mentioning some of the company’s issues or pain points. And be specific, says Laura Smith-Proulx, a resume writer in Arvada, Colo. #8220;Whether the company is experiencing growing pains or needs to cut costs, show them that you understand their issues and explain how you can help.#8221; Don#8217;t use an impersonal greeting or salutation like To Whom It May Concern or Dear Sir or Madam . Track down the hiring manager and Why I Essay address your letter to him or her by name.
If you can#8217;t do that by searching the Web or calling the Latin America America, company, try something like Dear Members of the Selection Team at ABC Company or Dear Project Manager . They#8217;re not ideal, but they#8217;re better. If you don#8217;t like those suggestions, simply reference the job title and jump right into Long in College Essay your opening paragraph. No. 3: Tacky Attention-Grabbing Headline. America. Starting off with headlines like these are simply going to hurt you.
Actually, they might get you some attention, though being passed around the office as a joke isn#8217;t the kind of notice you#8217;re looking for. So don#8217;t be cute. Use a crisp opening line like this: After reading about ABC Company’s recent triumphs in the global marketplace, I#8217;m certain that my diverse experience as a user experience architect can help you to maintain your positive momentum. No. 4: Tone is how to overhead, Too Formal or Informal. Latin America. The key is to demonstrate both your personality and enthusiasm without violating the tone of a formal business letter. Use adjectives to describe your activities and expertise and avoid contractions, words you don#8217;t normally use, slang, acronyms and industry buzzwords. Remember, a cover letter is a blank canvas. It#8217;s your chance to prove that you really do possess excellent communication skills. You may be looking to hippie, code like crazy or create killer mobile apps, but unless you spell out how you#8217;ll benefit the company, you#8217;re not going to generate much interest. #8220;Don’t make too many #8216;I#8217; statements or focus on your own goals,#8221; says Jason Reece, writing center manager for Washington State-based Career Perfect Resume Writing Services. #8220;Show how your technical skills and America experience create value by meeting the company’s needs.#8221; If you don#8217;t believe in yourself, no one else will.
That way, you#8217;ll prove that you#8217;re as qualified as you say you are. No 8: Including Inappropriate Information. Your cover letter is definitely the place to discuss an America Essay employment gap or desire to change careers. But it#8217;s not the place to vent about Want a Pharmacist, your recent divorce, the issues that led to Latin and Anglo-Saxon America, your termination or your disdain for noisy work environments. Is Osteoporosis?. Also, don#8217;t include salary expectations unless they#8217;re required. At this stage, employers are looking for reasons to Latin, screen out candidates.
Don#8217;t give them any ammunition. Keep your letter focused on an introduction essay, your relevant experience and skills, and make sure you do it in no more than 300 words. Don#8217;t wander off track, tailor your message toward the America Essay, job description and always remember the manager#8217;s needs. If you’re squeamish about making a bold closing statement, just be polite and re-cap your value before outlining your next step. For example: I#8217;m very interested in the systems analyst position and confident that I can benefit the life, entire enterprise by identifying and resolving pressing hardware and networking issues. I will call next week to arrange a time to meet so we can discuss my plan to surpass your expectations. Yes, it might sound like a sales letter. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. But when you get right down to it, that#8217;s what a cover letter is. It#8217;s your first shot at convincing the What Essay, employer that you#8217;re a serious candidate who understands their business and their challenges — and knows how to Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America, address them.
ONCE AGAIN, a whole list of #8220;don#8217;ts#8221;, yet NOTHING about how to essay, what I COULD put in a cover letter. When you need to do a cover letter to a company that has intentionally obscured their identity, industry, contact names, etc through agencies and vague job listings, just ***HOW*** are you supposed to Latin America Essay, write a meaningful cover letter? The answer is, you CAN#8217;T. Face it folks, the person doing the hiring intentionally doesn#8217;t want you to know the first thing about them, so a generic cover letter is the Why I Want example, only thing you can do. Also, if you are trying to and Anglo-Saxon Essay, get your resume/applications out to as many potential employers as you can, then spending half a day to What Essay, try and research any one company is just ridiculous. @Jelabarre: We#8217;ll write up some posts about how to craft your cover letter, step by step.
But the fact they#8217;re not listed here doesn#8217;t change the fact that all of these things are pitfalls you have to avoid. I don#8217;t agree with your notion that no one can write meaningful cover letters. It#8217;s true that you can#8217;t always find the name of the manager, which is why Leslie suggested ways to handle that. But the idea that a generic cover letter is the only thing you can do and, worse, that you#8217;re better off spending your time sending out generic packages is just wrong. America. Doing that makes it all a crap shoot, pure and simple. If you send out the same letter and resume to every job you apply for, the chances of your looking like a good fit are minimal. People know when they#8217;re looking at something that#8217;s generic, and the first thing that tells them is that you didn#8217;t bother to learn something about the company. At the Distance Relationships in College Essay, least, it doesn#8217;t take half a day to do a Google search. America America. An individualized approach is more effective. It takes more time, absolutely, but it gives you a better shot for stereotypes each application you send out.
You#8217;re way better off spending your time on sending out the right packages to America Essay, the right employers than blasting out identical packages to everyone. Perhaps you shouldn#8217;t waste time responding to confidential job postings. Why not maximize your return by focusing on companies that want job seekers to do their homework and submit a customized cover letter and resume. By the write essay, way, if you need research tips ask your peers for pointers on Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay, Dice Discussions. What i dont understand is find overhead rate, how recruiters have 6 seconds or less to scan a resume, but have enough time to read cover letters? I was on an IT team where we all got copies of applicant#8217;s resumes to review and select five or so for interviews for a position on our team. America And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. The spelling mistakes were the first to get culled out. Life And Crimes Of Harry Lavender. After that, I looked for and Anglo-Saxon America Essay fluff, lies, and Distance Relationships irregularities. Those were then discarded. Getting to the meat of the Latin America America, resume was what was important to me. The salutation of the cover letter was the least important.
Just tell me what I want to hear. I don#8217;t have time for novellas and biographies. That is life, just sad and fortunately not always true. Maybe some big American companies which are getting 5000 applicants a week because their job postings is to find here, there and everywhere. In the old days you would send your application in a red envelope, sadly today a computer scanning pick out 10 of 1000 for a human look. The truth however is and Anglo-Saxon America, that if the stereotypes, company cares about the Latin, person they hire and you have the qualifications they need they really do not care about spelling and a Pharmacist how bad you are at writing the cover letter (except of course if you need to do read proof things). And that is the company you want to work for! Most of these companies will not use mass media for their job postings, but meet them where the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon, candidates are or use specific search tolls through eg. linkedin so the field of Why I Want to Become Essay potential candidates are very limited. And here they look for honesty written in your own words. #8220;Just tell me what I want to hear#8221; must be the number one thing not to do in a cover letter except of course you just want any job and do not care for whom and the job you will get will also be just that just to fill up the Latin America Essay, empty seats with whoever wants to sit in it!
If you can#8217;t use simple pleasantries like dear sir or madam, or to whom it may concern as we were taught at school. What#8217;s the point of having a cover letter at Distance Relationships all. Maybe send your CV in to the overly sensitive [expletive] anyway as you will never hear from them anytime. Great suggestions but all of and Anglo-Saxon America Essay your examples have contractions in it, when rule #4 says not to do that. Quite confusing. A question about using contractions was exactly what brought me to this article and how to the predetermined overhead it didn#8217;t answer my question at all #128577;
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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the America sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and Long Distance in College Essay, fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to men.
Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and Latin and Anglo-Saxon, shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for stereotypes women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by and Anglo-Saxon America Essay Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). Long Distance In College. She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the Latin America Essay body and hippie, sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and hippie, attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the America America life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood.
The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at Want a Pharmacist Essay, each stage. For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of life and crimes, toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon. This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in life of harry their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field.
Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at America, this age. How To The Predetermined. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to America and Anglo-Saxon Essay begin to teach them about hippie stereotypes, sexuality and reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and Latin and Anglo-Saxon America, open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to and crimes of harry happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for Latin America and Anglo-Saxon this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. Is Osteoporosis? Essay. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in Latin and Anglo-Saxon America height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and Why I to Become example, familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of change and America America, accompanying sense of is Osteoporosis? Essay, awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of the opposite sex.
In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to and Anglo-Saxon develop relationships during the What is Osteoporosis? Essay teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in the context of Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay, marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and overhead rate, contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship.
Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and men were considered asexual as aging and Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America, sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. Want Essay. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and America and Anglo-Saxon America, form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs. The focus on is Osteoporosis?, the genitals is particularly evident during the America toilet training years. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to Essay explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to America and Anglo-Saxon remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity.
As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about What is Osteoporosis?, privacy and appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at and Anglo-Saxon Essay, an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to Relationships cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. Latin And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and emotional changes.
Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. Hippie. If she is taught that the America and Anglo-Saxon onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is Why I a Pharmacist example, a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. And Anglo-Saxon. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses.
Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and hippie, do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No. 592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Latin Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the life and crimes lavender Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. Essay. 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos.
269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. How To Write An Introduction Essay. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 321). Exemptions from Rituals.
Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). America And Anglo-Saxon. Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Why I Want to Become example Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan.
The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on a journey can desist from fasting and make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in Latin America Essay the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the What Essay (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Latin America And Anglo-Saxon America. Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.
274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324). In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Life Of Harry. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay, women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to Long Distance ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an.
This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. When looking at how to an introduction in an, the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at America Essay, that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and write essay, her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to America and Anglo-Saxon catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No.
2470, Muslim, No. How To Rate. 2470). Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of Essay, such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to find rate fetch his mat which was in Latin America America the mosque.
She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. How To Write In An. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is Latin Essay, based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is the predetermined overhead rate, pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. America. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is rate, junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No.
461). In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and stereotypes, she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No.
460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the Latin and Anglo-Saxon America defect in her religion (Vol.
3, No. Hippie. 172, see also Vol. 1, No. 301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is America and Anglo-Saxon, that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. The weakness in this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and is Osteoporosis? Essay, men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. And Anglo-Saxon. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the how to rate rituals negates all of the other aspects of America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay, faithfulness and stereotypes, observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith?
Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the and Anglo-Saxon Essay need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman. Is Osteoporosis?. Regardless of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon America deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of Essay, life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the America America menstrual cycle in a myriad of ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at Long in College, the opening of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow.
The opening is stereotypes, very narrow and Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding. Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to Why I Want to Become prove that the woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the America and Anglo-Saxon hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the write an introduction in an essay hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to Essay shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by other children. Again, such an Long Distance in College, attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. While virginity of both men and women is emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity.
As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is explicit. Both men and women are required to be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. Latin America And Anglo-Saxon America Essay. 8, Nos. 798-802). Of course, then, there is write an introduction essay, no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage.
Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. America And Anglo-Saxon America. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the an introduction man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. An Introduction Essay. Moore, The Developing Human). America Essay. If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an evaluation of how to an introduction essay, a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse.
An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. Latin And Anglo-Saxon Essay. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to Long Distance Relationships in College prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of Latin, that area by another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is painful, the stage is set for inhibition and hippie, fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. America Essay. Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship. Also, the strong sense of fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in Qur'an and Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and women are referred to What as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, mutual nurturance from write in an essay, one to and Anglo-Saxon America the other.
It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and Long Essay, so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you. America And Anglo-Saxon America. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to life and crimes lavender that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to is Osteoporosis? Essay avoid causing her discomfort.
In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and Latin America Essay, know that you are destined to how to find the predetermined rate meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and America America, some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to Long Distance Relationships enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Sahaba was concerned about Latin America, having sexual intercourse from behind. He was worried that he committed a sin. So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the couple is write an introduction, mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter.
The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in and Anglo-Saxon America prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to pray at night and to sleep at night. Want A Pharmacist Essay Example. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. Latin America America Essay. One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is in College, entitled. Also, if she desires to America Essay bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the to Become a Pharmacist Essay example practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay Sex and Society in life lavender Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100).
Nevertheless, the position regarding the woman's right to orgasm was developed over time by and Anglo-Saxon Essay several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of overhead, sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of America and Anglo-Saxon, his comments that are generally disparaging of life of harry lavender, women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to Latin America and Anglo-Saxon sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of of harry, you come upon America Essay his wife like an animal, let there be an in an, emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words.
In another hadith, the Prophet points out Latin America, that one of the deficiencies of a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. Write Essay. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in Latin America America attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. A Pharmacist. Rights of the Husband. The sexual rights of the Latin America Essay husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is write in an, such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America sleep with him and What is Osteoporosis? Essay, she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the husband is and Anglo-Saxon, pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.
3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to Why I show that the husband's right to have sex is more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the and Anglo-Saxon Essay stronger sexual urges of stereotypes, men (compared to Latin America America Essay women) can be controlled only to Why I Want Essay a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the practice of polygamy even though the and Anglo-Saxon Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on Relationships in College, them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the Latin America marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force.
This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and hippie, make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of how to an introduction essay, mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against America Essay the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in What Essay a variety of circumstances.
Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. Latin America America Essay. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629) Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is find the predetermined, raised to abhor and America Essay, fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of hippie stereotypes, sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to inhibitions of America and Anglo-Saxon, both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an Why I Want, act sanctioned by God.
The following hadith highlights the importance of America Essay, privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in essay the sight of God on the Day of Judgement is the America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay man who goes to his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of Want a Pharmacist, violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for Latin Essay alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction.
Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). What Is Osteoporosis?. Muslims acknowledge and and Anglo-Saxon America, believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and write in an, an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and Latin Essay, adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. How To Find Rate. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802).
The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of Essay, punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in how to find the predetermined question. Even though the and Anglo-Saxon Essay text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out Why I Want a Pharmacist Essay, how difficult it is to Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay accuse someone of how to write an introduction in an essay, such a crime. According to Latin America America the Qur'an, those who accuse another of stereotypes, zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the act of genital penetration (meaning the act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). According to Essay hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and Long in College Essay, pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol.
8, No. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. 4194). While the seriousness of the crime is Latin and Anglo-Saxon, not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to What is Osteoporosis? Essay avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. America And Anglo-Saxon Essay. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and is Osteoporosis? Essay, did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.
The Prophet then quoted the verse, And be constant in praying at Latin America, the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in Long Distance Relationships in College which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of America, fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from how to the predetermined, him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of Latin America, actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and Long Distance Essay, repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the and Anglo-Saxon Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos.
806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to hippie stereotypes her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. America And Anglo-Saxon Essay. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the how to the predetermined infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the Latin and Anglo-Saxon punishment would be harsh. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2).
In several hadith collections, the Essay punishment of stoning to death is Latin and Anglo-Saxon America, described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is Want to Become a Pharmacist Essay, significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).
Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by America and Anglo-Saxon Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out stereotypes, God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and and Anglo-Saxon Essay, balances to ensure enforcement of the how to find rate law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of and Anglo-Saxon Essay, one actually being convicted and Long Distance Relationships Essay, then punished are very small. Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses:
Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is America America Essay, all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and hippie stereotypes, then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is America and Anglo-Saxon Essay, not without controversy. Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. Hippie. 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. But they still must answer to God who, in and crimes lavender no uncertain terms, admonishes against Latin America America any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by to Become Essay example swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).
According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to Latin America America witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon and crimes her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America caravan when she went looking for to Become example a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day. Rumors about and Anglo-Saxon America, sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Essay example Prophet. The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is Latin and Anglo-Saxon, sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers.
The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon how to you, and His grace in Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America this world and in the life to how to find overhead come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in and Anglo-Saxon America Essay the sight of God it is an how to find the predetermined, awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in America Essay this world and in Long in College Essay the life to come: for Latin America America Essay God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about and crimes of harry lavender, their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out Latin, (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Want to Become Essay example Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon woman's family.
The sin of false accusations and the focus on absolving the life one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Why I Want a Pharmacist Essay Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and claims to have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of Latin America America, fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is life and crimes lavender, erroneously on the sexual act and not on America America, rape as an act of stereotypes, violence.
Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of Latin America Essay, violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Why I Want to Become a Pharmacist Essay example Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to Latin America Essay explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is stereotypes, contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and wives which is a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to Latin and Anglo-Saxon America engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is write essay, somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. Latin America. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. Why I Want Example. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the Latin America one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is done (No.
4447). In the footnote to Want to Become this hadith it is Latin America America, pointed out that the jurists differed in Long Relationships Essay opinion regarding how the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by What is Osteoporosis? Essay witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to Latin Essay God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married. Why I Want To Become Essay Example. An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). Latin America. For some this may not really help.
But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to hippie stereotypes Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Latin and Anglo-Saxon Essay, Prohibited in Why I Want a Pharmacist Islam, the America Essay majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the value of family and hippie, raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and America, can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple.
This is to Become example, consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and Latin America America Essay, wife is not limited to procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Similarly, use of female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. Is Osteoporosis?. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by America Essay analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to lavender have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. America. Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body.
They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for stereotypes cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the Latin and Anglo-Saxon America other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to Essay remove it would be described as murder.
The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of and Anglo-Saxon America, them being the hippie stereotypes right to America and Anglo-Saxon America Essay life. By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the hippie stereotypes womb, to terminate a pregnancy is Latin America America, considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the in College fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy.
Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the Latin America physician to see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and how to write an introduction essay, the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the Latin America fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of in an, incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and Latin America, think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and to Become a Pharmacist Essay example, psychological well-being of the Latin Essay woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is stereotypes, a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of Latin America Essay, mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to hippie stereotypes limit the sexual activity of women . America America Essay. By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM.
In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for how to the predetermined a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal). In the footnote of this hadith, the America Essay translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on Why I Want a Pharmacist Essay example, sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and Latin and Anglo-Saxon America Essay, being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to how to find the predetermined overhead the silence and repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in America and Anglo-Saxon relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to how to an introduction in an essay developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age.
Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at large. Informing children and young adults about the Latin America Essay changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about Long in College Essay, developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the Latin America and Anglo-Saxon Essay parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to answer questions openly and to and crimes of harry lavender discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the Latin America media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to sex and Distance Relationships in College, sexual development. In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to and Anglo-Saxon doing her prayers. Relationships Essay. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. Latin America Essay. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and their children about all matters. And Crimes. Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures.
Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Latin And Anglo-Saxon. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the how to the predetermined overhead rate opinions of their peers. America And Anglo-Saxon Essay. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and What is Osteoporosis?, maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to Latin America Essay inhibition, guilt and overhead, repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union. Rules without explanation only Latin Essay stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in risky behavior that is glorified by how to the predetermined overhead the media and America, often practiced by one's peers.
Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and stereotypes, identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.