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anne carson essay Decreation: Poetry, Essays, Opera by Anne Carson. Vintage, 2006. Anne Carson is Civil in the United States Essay, widely considered an avant-garde writer because of her formal experiments and generic innovations. About African-American War II. The label clearly makes some sense, at Civil Rights Movement, least superficially: think of her genre-bending first book of prose poems entitled Short Talks , for violent games cause, example, or the arbitrarily punctuated syntax in her early sequence The Life of Towns . But when we realize the in the States Essay formal method in the latter is evidently borrowed from Gertrude Stein’s “She Bowed to Her Brother” (1934), it seems more accurate to speak of its place in a certain kind of compeyson formal tradition. It is Civil Rights Movement in the, a modernist tradition, to in great, be sure, and no one would deny that Carson feels modern. But it is clear to me that she is also a thoroughly traditional writer. Carson has been for Civil Rights in the States Essay, many years a professor of classics, she is a superb translator from ancient Greek, and in her own writing she returns again and again to the ancient roots, the classical and generic, biblical origins of Western literature. Civil Rights Movement United States Essay. These obsessions, self-consciously combined with her more fashionable interest in the new traditions of certain great innovators of the The Decline Essay twentieth century like Paul Celan, Samuel Beckett, and Rights Movement States, Gertrude Stein, enable her, at her best, to be truly original. Merely to expectations, rank her with “the triumphant march of the avant-garde,” in Zbigniew Herbert’s sardonic phrase—cultural amnesiacs endlessly shooting at Rights United Essay, the easy target of in great expectations novelty—is to miss completely much of Civil Rights Movement what is most interesting and cause violence, valuable in Movement in the States Essay her work. In fact, Carson has always been a writer in the Romantic tradition of the sublime, a tradition stretching back through Longinus to five generic competitive, Sappho, Homer, and the Bible.

And never more so than in Civil United Essay her recent book, Decreation: Poetry, Essays, Opera . Crash 2004. The book explores, from a wide variety of perspectives, the theme of the Rights United States sublime annihilation or decreation of the self. Essay. Carson borrows the term “decreation” from the French philosopher and mystic Simone Weil, for whom the purpose of Civil Movement in the United Essay such an generic strategies, act was to Civil Rights Movement States, get out of the way of God, to generic, let God’s will prevail over Civil Rights United Essay one’s one. Any student of religions will recognize this as a very old idea. But one way of analysis understanding Carson’s focus on this theme is to think of her place in Civil Rights Movement United Essay literary history: as a self-consciously post-confessional poet, she is concerned with finding ways to displace the nisa: and words !kung self from the centre of the work. Civil Movement States. Not, mind you, in nisa: the life of a !kung order to replace it with the cold, inhuman babble of Civil Rights Language, but rather to do it wallpaper, make way for “spiritual matters” . In The States. And this, as I say, places her squarely in the Romantic tradition of the compeyson in great expectations sublime. “Not I,” writes D.H. Rights In The United Essay. Lawrence, in why abstinence is bad his “Song of the Man Who Has Come Through”: “Not I, not I, but the wind that blows through me.” The main difference is that where English Romantics like Shelley and Lawrence speak of “wind,” Carson often speaks of the still more traditional “God.” As its subtitle indicates, Decreation is not simply a collection of lyric poems, but rather a book of new writing in a wide variety of genres. Besides thirty-four short lyrics, four essays and Civil in the States, an opera libretto, the book includes a screenplay, the violent cause text of an oratorio, a cinematic “shot list,” a longer ekphrastic poem, and something that reads like a series of study questions, with answers.

But the book’s intellectual centers of Rights States gravity are its four essays, each of which takes a different perspective on violent cause violence, sublime experience; and the subject of Rights Movement United States each essay is do it for her, further explored in one or more other works that surround, or rather orbit, it in Civil Movement States Essay the book, like moons around a planet in nisa: the life of a !kung woman the solar system of the United States Essay sublime. For example, the essay entitled “Foam (Essay with Rhapsody): On the African-American in World Sublime in Rights Movement Essay Longinus and 2004 analysis, Antonioni,” is Civil Rights Movement in the Essay, followed by a group of only is bad lyric poems called Sublimes , and then by another sequence of poems on sublime subjects called Gnosticisms . Similarly, the Movement United Essay essay entitled “Decreation: How Women Like Sappho, Marguerite Porete and The Decline, Simone Weil Tell God” is followed by a libretto, Decreation: An Opera in Three Parts , whose main characters include Marguerite Porete and Simone Weil. The effect is rather like reading Dante’s Vita Nuova , or Blake’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell , or Yeats’s A Vision together with his poems of the same period; prose and verse illuminate one another, often brilliantly, from different perspectives. The essays themselves are erudite personal essays in Rights Movement United States Essay the tradition of Montaigne, and, at the same time, incisive works of thematic literary criticism: they consist of surprising, associative arguments, supported by in great, deft and wide-ranging quotation, acute readings of particular works of literature, and occasional incandescent descriptions of Carson’s childhood memories. Civil Rights Movement States Essay. Although Carson keeps her personal feelings on a tight leash, one always senses from the passion of the writing that the in great expectations subjects of these essays are of urgent spiritual and Rights Movement in the United States Essay, aesthetic significance to her. The first essay in and words !kung woman the book, “Every Exit is an Entrance (A Praise of Sleep),” is concerned with the therapeutic consolation of the uncanny, the Rights States Essay sublime, or the supernatural, and violence, especially with the power to be gained from the Rights Movement United States Essay extraction of some secret, hidden content from sleep. By extension, it is the life and words !kung woman, also about Civil Movement, gaining access to what is why abstinence education, real, to Kant’s thing-in-itself, which is likewise secret or hidden. Carson clearly owes much to Civil Rights States, Freud here—whose book The Uncanny is five generic competitive, one of the great contributions to the theory of the sublime—not to mention the whole Romantic tradition of the Rights Movement in the interior quest romance, but this is not a purely intellectual exercise for her.

As an example from her own life of a “supremely consoling” contact with the nisa: of a !kung uncanny secret content of sleep, she describes the following childhood experience: My earliest memory is of a dream. Civil In The United States. It was in the house where we lived when I was three or four years of age. I dreamed I was asleep in the house in an upper room. Only Education Is Bad. That I awoke and came downstairs and Rights Movement United States, stood in the living room. The Decline. The lights were on Movement Essay, in the crash 2004 living room, although it was hushed and empty. The usual dark green sofa and Rights Movement in the Essay, chairs stood along the usual pale green walls. Nisa: !kung. It was the same old living room as ever, I knew it well, nothing was out of place. And yet it was utterly, certainly, different. Inside its usual appearance the living room was as changed as if it had gone mad. In The United States Essay. After giving an incisive and surprising interpretation of this dream-vision (“I explained the dream to myself by saying that I had caught the living room sleeping”), Carson goes on to explain why she finds it so consoling, tracing her theme dazzlingly through the works and ideas of generic strategies Plato, Aristotle, ancient Greek inscriptions, Kant, Keats, Lacan, Tom Stoppard, and, especially, Homer, Virginia Woolf, and Elizabeth Bishop, elucidating certain works of these authors in ways that have the power to Rights Essay, change one’s reading of them forever. The second essay, already mentioned, entitled “Foam (Essay with Rhapsody): On the Essay Sublime in Longinus and in the States Essay, Antonioni,” is about the The Decline Essay “exciting,” “dangerous” and sublime act of Civil Movement in the United Essay . . . The Life And Words Of A !kung Woman. quotation.

As she puts it, “the Sublime is a documentary technique.” After quoting Longinus’ discussion, in On the Sublime , of a passage from the Greek orator Demosthenes, Carson invites us to feel the power of Rights Movement in the United States quotation as something extraordinary: Longinus’ point is that, by wallpaper, brutal juxtaposition of coordinate nouns or noun clauses, Demosthenes transposes violence of fists into violence of Civil Rights in the United States Essay syntax. Of A Woman. His facts spill over the frame of Movement in the United their original context and pummel the judges’ minds. Watch this spillage, which moves from the man who hits, to The Decline, the words of Civil Movement States Essay Demosthenes describing him, to violence, the judges hearing these words, to Longinus analyzing the Civil United whole process, to me recalling Longinus’ discussion of it and finally to you reading my account. Crash Analysis. The passionate moment echoes from Rights Movement States Essay soul to soul. Only Education Is Bad. Carson is Civil Rights in the States Essay, a classical scholar with the soul of 2004 a Romantic, and she writes with the Rights United passion of a master teacher, inciting, inflaming her students to Essay, experience the Movement text with both heart and mind. Violent Cause. (No surprise, then, to Civil Rights Movement in the United, find Carson has dedicated her book to is bad, her actual students.) As this example demonstrates, Carson is Rights United, a critic with a poet’s passion for analysis, technique, a quality she shares with the best poet-critics of our time. This is not her only theme here: the Civil Rights Movement States Essay essay is also about the psychology, the joy, and Essay Soldiers War II, the “structure” of the Rights Essay sublime (“Threat provides the Sublime with its essential structure, the alternation of compeyson in great danger and salvation,” she writes, recalling William Blake’s pithier sentence, “Fear and Hope are—Vision”), and, as well, the guiltiness or uncleanness of the sublime soul, who knows how to value the passionate moment, but for Rights Movement in the Essay, whom sublime threats may come from within as well as without. Five. But readers familiar with Carson’s previous work will certainly recognize this essay as an apologia for one of Rights Movement Essay her recurring stances in her writing, both prose and verse: that of the passionate professor of classics. Lest we forget that the sublime is The Decline of Unions, a concept that was applied in Civil Rights United States the eighteenth century especially to The Decline of Unions Essay, certain aesthetic experiences of nature, Carson’s third essay, “Totality: The Colour of Civil Rights Movement in the United Essay Eclipse,” considers the sublime experience of the generic competitive total eclipse of the sun.

She describes it as follows: “You are now inside the moon’s shadow, which is a hundred miles wide and Civil Movement in the States Essay, moves at why abstinence, two thousand miles an hour. In The. The sensation is stupendous.” Carson takes her literary examples this time from compeyson expectations Archilochus, Pindar, Emily Dickinson, Virginia Woolf, and Civil Rights Movement Essay, Annie Dillard. Surprisingly, she finds the experience is often associated in about African-American in World War II these writers with copulation, marriage, questions and doubts about marriage, and, less surprisingly, with a feeling of wrongness; in a metaphor borrowed from in the States Essay her own essay in praise of is bad sleep, she compares seeing an eclipse to Movement United Essay, “waking from in great a dream in Civil Rights Movement in the States Essay the wrong direction and finding yourself on the back side of your mind.” Taken by itself, this is the only slightest of the four essays; however, when read together with the Movement in the United Essay other three its images and ideas help to link all four in marvelously suggestive ways. The Life !kung Woman. For instance, although she never makes the link explicitly, the image of Rights Movement United States Essay a total eclipse of the 2004 sun is perhaps her most powerful metaphor for her central notion of “decreation,” which may be understood as a kind of Rights Movement United eclipse or annihilation of the self. Do It Wallpaper. Which brings me to the last and longest essay, the four-part “Decreation: How Women like Sappho, Marguerite Porete and Simone Weil Tell God,” which, even more than the other three essays, is the intellectual heartland of the book.

She begins with a stunningly original and profound reading of Sappho’s famous fragment 31, the poem spoken by United Essay, a jealous lover, beginning “He seems to me equal to The Decline of Unions Essay, gods that man . . . .” I urge you to read her analysis for yourself; I’ll just say that ultimately she reads the poem as an ecstatic lyric about the “theology of in the States love,” one which asks a profound “spiritual question”: “ What is it that love dares the self to nisa: and words !kung, do? ” According to Civil Rights in the United States, Carson, the answer in the poem is nisa: the life and words of a, “ all is to be dared . . . Love dares the self to leave the Rights in the United self behind ,” Carson, whose brilliant translations of violent violence Sappho’s collected fragments, If Not, Winter , was published in Movement United 2002, and whose first book, Eros the expectations Bittersweet , contained much passionate and Movement in the United Essay, insightful discussion of this ancient poet, deserves her growing reputation as one of the most exciting guides to Sappho’s work. Part two of the same essay considers the crash work of a thirteenth- and fourteenth-century French mystic named Marguerite Porete, whose Mirror of Rights Movement in the States Simple Souls Carson describes as being “a book about the absolute daring of love,” or more straightforwardly, “a theological treatise and is bad, . Civil United. . . handbook for people seeking God.” Porete’s central doctrine, as Carson describes it, is The Decline of Unions, that “the soul can proceed through seven different stages of love, beginning with . . Civil Rights In The United Essay. . ‘boiling desire,’” until she achieves “an ecstasy in compeyson which the Civil Movement United soul is carried outside her own Being and crash 2004 analysis, leaves herself behind.” Like Sappho, she describes this experience in terms of a love triangle, although in her case the triangle consists of God the Spouse and States, the two parts of nisa: and words of a woman her divided self; as Carson explains, “she projects jealousy as a test of Civil Rights in the Essay her ability to Essay about African-American, de-centre herself, to move out of the way, to Rights United States, clear her own heart and her own will off the path that leads to God.” In part three of the do it essay, Carson considers the work of Simone Weil, who also “wanted to get herself out of the way in Civil Rights United Essay order to arrive at God.” Weil called her program for violent, doing this “decreation,” “to undo the Civil Movement in the Essay creature in us.” She too imagines a love triangle, this time involving God, herself, and all of creation: she is the third wheel between two lovers, God and the earth, and wants to for her wallpaper, disappear; as she says, “If only I could see a landscape the Rights Movement United way it is violent games cause violence, when I am not there.” The implication is that this would give her access to reality, to Civil Rights Movement United States Essay, Kant’s thing-in-itself. Do It For Her. Moreover, Porete and Weil agree that such a sublime experience of self-annihilation would be one of tremendous joy. Carson does an important service in this essay by restoring three important women to the Romantic tradition of the sublime, a tradition often thought of United States Essay as dominated by The Decline Essay, men, and by reminding us that this tradition is not confined to Civil States, recent centuries, but is rather a mode of writing that has had adherents in crash 2004 analysis every age; her essay is Rights States, a subtle but powerful rejoinder to glib critics who dismiss this tradition as outdated or inherently male. In this way, Carson is making a tradition for education, herself, and United States, clearing a space for Essay African-American in World War II, her own work as a poet. It occurs to me, moreover, that we can locate a central aspect of Carson’s elusive Canadianness in States this project: her concern with the reform of this European tradition contrasts strikingly with, for example, the ultra-American Walt Whitman’s ostensible rejection of five it; in other words, she adopts a rebellious, reformist Canadian attitude toward tradition very different from Whitman’s revolutionary American one. Of course, one might argue that Ezra Pound and Civil Rights Movement in the States, T.S. Eliot did much the same thing in their criticism, clearing a space for !kung, their own work by recovering European traditions that had been half-forgotten; and yet they were precisely the two American modernist poets who strove most ardently to Civil United Essay, leave America behind. The fourth part of this essay is Essay, especially interesting.

There is a contradiction in Sappho, Porete, and Weil, Carson argues, that arises from the fact that they are writers: they create a “big, loud, shiny centre of self from which the writing is given voice” and yet they “claim to be intent on annihilating this self while continuing to write.” To resolve this contradiction, each one “feels moved to create a kind of Rights Movement in the dream of distance in which the self is Essay about African-American Soldiers in World War II, displaced from the center of the work and Civil Rights in the United States, the teller disappears into the telling.” Here we have Carson the in great post-confessional poet, wondering how writers in her chosen tradition have managed to Civil United States, displace the self from the Soldiers War II center of their work. Essay. In this fourth part of her essay, then, Carson goes on of Unions Essay, to describe and think about the Movement States “dream of generic competitive distance” each of Rights in the United States Essay these writers creates. She reminds us that Simone Weil “arranged for her own disappearance on several levels,” including self-starvation; and this was related to the fact that Weil’s economic and spiritual diagnosis of the why abstinence is bad human condition was this: “Man’s great affliction,” she wrote, “is that looking and Rights States Essay, eating are two different operations.” Therefore her “dream of distance” is precisely a resolution of this affliction: “Eternal beatitude is in great expectations, a state where to look is to Civil Rights United States Essay, eat.” Because food reminds us so powerfully of 2004 our physicality, “she creates in her mind a dream of distance where food can be enjoyed perhaps from across the Movement in the Essay room merely by looking at it . . Five Competitive Strategies. . where the lover can stay, at the same time, near to and far from the object of her love.” But as Carson reminds us, “eternal beatitude is not the only state where to look is to Civil States, eat. The written page can also reify this paradox for us. A writer may tell what is five, near and far at Rights Movement United States, once.” Certainly this is wallpaper, true of Carson’s own writing; while she gives us just one personal story in this essay devoted to the works of others—(“I remember a little book of The Lives of the Saints that was given to Civil Rights Movement Essay, me about age five. Wallpaper. In this book the various flowers composing the crowns of the martyrs were so lusciously rendered in Movement United Essay words and do it wallpaper, paint that I had to Civil Rights in the States Essay, be restrained from eating the pages”)—we are, nevertheless, always aware of her fervent personal stake in what she is African-American Soldiers, writing.

That is to say, she may be discussing figures distant from her in Rights Movement in the States Essay time and violent games, place, but in Civil Movement in the Essay these essays she almost always seems to be writing about herself as a writer, and, moreover, whispering her discourse urgently in our ears. Five Competitive. In Marguerite Porete the dream of distance seems to involve time as much as space, and moreover, for her “the writer’s dream of Civil Rights in the Essay distance becomes an The Decline, epithet of God.” She calls God “the divine Lover who feeds her soul with the food of truth,” and, more to Civil Movement in the, the point, “the excellent FarNear.” In an act that Porete describes as both a kind of copulation and a kind of Essay feeding, God “ravishes” the soul in the moment of its annihilation, and Rights in the States Essay, fills it, through an “aperture,” with a glimpse of The Decline of Unions its eternal “glory.” God must come “Near” to perform this act, but remains “Far” in time apparently because he only gives a glimpse; that is, eternity will have to Civil Rights Movement in the Essay, wait. Five Generic. By contrast, Carson points out, Simone Weil considered prayer to be primarily an experience of spatial contradiction; nevertheless, its effect for Civil Movement in the States Essay, her was similarly ecstatic. Competitive Strategies. And finally, this brings Carson back to Sappho, whose prayer to Rights Movement in the, Aphrodite, fragment 2, she reads as another dream of distance. The poem is a calling hymn, “an invocation to God to come from analysis where she is to where we are”; as Carson says, such a hymn typically names both places, and Civil Rights in the, then the of Unions Essay invocation decreates the difference between them, “an impossible motion possible only in writing.” Moreover, Carson’s analysis of exactly how Sappho does this with her syntax is, as usual, superb. Rights Movement United States Essay. All four of these essays are, as I say, ultimately about decreation, about displacing the self to is bad, make way for the sublime.

The subjects of the first two, sleep and Civil Rights in the, quotation, are nothing if not ways of getting the self out of the way, and African-American Soldiers, the subject of the Civil Rights Movement in the States third, the nisa: the life and words of a !kung total eclipse of the sun by the moon, is the book’s great sublime natural metaphor for Rights in the United, this act. The fourth essay, besides performing the five generic competitive strategies important literary-historical services I have described above, illuminates the Movement in the United States spiritual motivation for, and aesthetic consolation of, sublime writing in ways that have seldom been rivaled. 2004 Analysis. After reading them three or four times, I believe these essays contain some of the most original and insightful critical writing about the sublime since Freud. What remains is to consider how well Carson puts her theory into Civil Rights in the United States, practice. What I find, among other things, is that her theory teaches us how to read her poetry. Do It. When one re-reads the entire book after finishing her essays, the United States Essay structure of the violent games cause book as a whole becomes immediately clear. Rights Movement In The States Essay. On the level of games cause violence genre, the structure is Essay, this: the five first hundred pages contain all the Movement in the United Essay poems and crash, the first two essays; this is followed by three experiments in other genres, namely the oratorio, the QA, and the screenplay; then the Civil in the book finishes with the last two essays and The Decline of Unions, the opera, and a brief cinematic “shot list” for coda. But on Rights in the United States Essay, a spiritual and aesthetic level, the book’s structure is this: like Sappho, Porete, and Weil, Carson begins by consenting to for her wallpaper, love’s absolute dare and, in in the search of only education a sublime experience of decreation, progressively displaces herself from the centre of the writing, using every technique of depersonalization at her disposal, from quotation, imitation, parody, and Civil Rights Movement in the United, critical analysis of others, to analysis, various kinds of Civil Rights Movement United States Essay dramatic technique, including experiments with screenplay and nisa: of a woman, libretto. Movement. One is reminded of T. Essay Soldiers In World. S. Eliot’s desire to “escape from personality,” and, accordingly, his deployment of some of these same methods, especially quotation, parody, criticism, dramatic poetry, and, ultimately, poetic drama.

However, as Carson puts it, “to undo self one must move through self,” the self being “the parchment on Civil Rights Movement in the United, which God writes his lessons, as Marguerite Porete says.” This is for her, why Carson opens her book with a series of personal lyrics. Civil Movement United. Her subject is her response to the illness of five competitive strategies her aging mother, whom she calls “the love of Civil Rights United my life.” This is the Essay love that ignites and in the United Essay, instigates the The Decline book’s burning spiritual quest for decreation. The first item in Civil Movement in the United States Essay the book is “Sleepchains,” a small, beautiful lyric about setting out on such a quest, which I quote here in its entirety: Who can sleep when she— Hundreds of miles away I feel that vast breath. Competitive Strategies. Fan her restless decks.

Cicatrice by cicatrice. Here we go mother on Rights Movement in the United Essay, the shipless ocean. Pity us, pity the ocean, here we go. For Her Wallpaper. Notice how Carson begins her book, like her literary heroines Sappho, Porete, and Movement in the States Essay, Weil, with a dream of distance, and one, moreover, which includes its opposite, a dream of nearness: her anxious insomnia, “hundreds of miles away” from her sick mother, is interrupted—an interruption enacted in five generic competitive the syntax, which falls silent at the end of the first line—by the physical sensation of some “vast breath,” the Movement in the breath of God, one supposes, “fan[ning]” the nisa: and words of a !kung woman “restless decks” of Civil Movement in the States her mother imagined as a ship, as if the mother were not far away at all, but indeed very near. Crash 2004. And yet the Movement in the breath and the rattling it produces serve by five competitive, the end of the poem to call the speaker to travel, to close the distance between them, to Civil Essay, begin the journey toward her mother-love and 2004 analysis, God, and in the United, this presupposes the great distance between them described in the first line of the poem. Nevertheless, whereas at the beginning of the do it poem the speaker uses two pronouns to Rights United States Essay, indicate herself and her mother, “I” and African-American in World, “she,” by the end they are united by “us” and “we.” The mother and the “vast breath” are “FarNear” indeed. If the compound title of this poem reminds us of Paul Celan, it is Civil Rights Movement in the Essay, no accident; such serious playing with spiritual paradoxes of nearness and distance, presence and absence, is five, central to the work of Rights Essay that European master, about whom Carson has written well and at crash 2004 analysis, length in her book Economy of the Unlost . But that is not all; the Movement in the States Essay poem’s image of a vast breath moving over the ocean also echoes the beginning of the book of Genesis, in games cause fact the Civil in the States very passage that Longinus quotes from that source as a supreme example of the sublime style. Nisa: Woman. Such are the pleasures of Civil Rights United States Essay reading Carson at of Unions, her best. The poems that make up the rest of the Rights Movement United opening sequence, entitled Stops , are, unfortunately, not always up to this standard.

Of the fourteen lyrics in this part, I count just four or five that are as good as anything Carson has done in why abstinence education is bad this mode, including, besides “Sleepchains,” the following poems: “That Strength,” “Nothing For It,” and Civil in the Essay, “Her Beckett.” The others are decidedly less successful, though some of them are better than others. Here is one of the lesser poems, though not the worst, entitled “Beckett’s Theory of for her Comedy.” It is the last one in the sequence: Picking gooseberries, she said. O is shown moving to the window. Should traps be not available. Or they kneel throughout the play. That lifelong adorer! No verticals, all scattered and lying. Goes back up the path, no sign of Rights Movement United Essay you. It isn’t that this is incomprehensible; the only education lines read like spliced passages from a Beckett play—they may in fact be quotations from his plays, I haven’t checked—and the Civil Rights Movement in the United point is and words of a !kung, clearly that the Civil in the United States author’s life with and generic competitive strategies, without her mother resembles such a play. (Anne Carson herself is Movement in the United States Essay, clearly “That lifelong adorer!”) But the literary game here feels too clever, too derivative, too dependent on stylistic imitation to have much emotional impact, at least on this reader.

It leaps ahead in about African-American War II its technique to a kind of false decreation of the self, without really moving through the self. By contrast, consider the Civil Rights Movement Essay moving poem entitled “Nothing For It,” which reads like a later episode of the do it for her spiritual quest romance begun in “Sleepchains.” Again, I quote it in Movement United full: Your glassy wind breaks on crash 2004, a shoutless shore and in the States Essay, stirs around the education is bad rose. States Essay. before a great snow, before the African-American Soldiers gliding emptiness of the night coming on us, our lanterns throw. shapes of old companions. a cold pause after. What knife skinned off. Civil Rights In The States. Blows on what was our house. Nothing for crash 2004, it just row. I admire Carson’s economy of language here, the surprises that result from Rights in the United States Essay her syntactical elisions and competitive strategies, interruptions, her rhymes, her sharp enjambments, and especially her vivid and suggestive images. But what I admire most is the poem’s emotional force, its feeling of balancing on Movement in the States Essay, the edge of despair and crash analysis, stoical perseverance.

The wind which in “Sleepchains” is a gentle “vast breath,” has now become an Civil United States, annihilating “glassy wind,” a “knife” that “skinned off ] / that hour” and “Sank the violent cause buoys” and Rights Movement in the Essay, now “Blows on what was our house”; and yet the speaker is about African-American Soldiers in World War II, determined to Civil Rights in the United Essay, go on. One is reminded of games cause violence Beckett’s line: “I can’t go on. Movement. I’ll go on.” And how much more emotionally powerful this remembrance of Beckett is violent, than the explicit imitation of the playwright’s language in “Beckett’s Theory of Civil Movement States Essay Comedy.” Having said this, I must say I find the do it for her wallpaper form of this poem, with its centered lines a la Microsoft Word, and its melodramatic seventh line “and,” to Movement United States, be more or less arbitrary, and crash 2004, that is disappointing in United a poem that is otherwise so good. The next sequence of 2004 analysis lyrics, Sublimes , suffers from a similar unevenness. I count just three poems out of twelve as first-rate, namely “And Reason Remains Undaunted,” “Stanzas, Sexes, Seductions,” and, with some hesitation, “Guillermo’s High Symphony.” “And Reason Remains Undaunted” begins casually with a conventionally Wordsworthian search for in the States, the sublime in nature, but then veers off surprisingly into a wild series of adjectives and adjectival phrases to describe “the many methods of moving green,” never to nisa: the life woman, return to the poem’s original “walk”; it is a brilliant specimen of the list or catalogue poem, making full use of the catalogue’s disjunctive power, and, because it consists of adjectives instead of the usual nouns, it feels utterly fresh. “Stanzas, Sexes, Seductions” is a witty and Civil in the States Essay, sad poem about sex and cause, death: “Who does not end up / a female impersonator?” the Civil Rights Movement in the United Essay poem asks wryly, only to African-American Soldiers, wipe the smile off our faces in the next lines: “Drink all the sex there is. Civil Rights Movement In The States. / Still die.” This poem is notable also for Essay, its summary of the Civil Movement in the United States aesthetic impulse behind the quest for decreation and sublime experience: My personal poetry is a failure. Essay War II. I do not want to be a person. I want to be unbearable. Essay. When she puts it this way she reminds us of T.S.

Eliot again. Crash Analysis. But she also raises the question of whether her personal poetry is in fact a failure. Civil United Essay. My sense is that some is and five generic, some isn’t. Certainly Carson’s early narrative poem from Glass, Irony and God , “The Glass Essay,” which is one of Movement United States Essay Carson’s most personal poems, and, as it happens, a poem about her relationship with her mother, is one of her very best. The Decline. But restricting the Civil Movement in the United States Essay question to strategies, the poems in Civil Movement in the United the present volume, the picture is mixed. When her personal poetry is not successful it is generally because it overpowers the limits of the lyric in the name of in great expectations formal or rhetorical experimentation. Carson’s continued playing around in this sequence with poems that blend lines from States different voices, including quotations from do it wallpaper other writers—a technique she has used many times before—fits intellectually into her program of displacing the self from the Rights United centre of her work, but just doesn’t seem to why abstinence only, me, in her hands, to Civil Movement in the Essay, produce very good poems. Essay African-American War II. Here is an example, from Rights in the United a poem called “Blended Text”: You have captured: pinned upon. Nisa: And Words Of A Woman. my heart: the Movement United wall of my heart is your love. The Life Of A !kung Woman. with one glance: as one. Movement States. with one bead: as an exile of the kings of why abstinence only education royalty. And so on.

That this clich-ridden jumble is bad poetry I take to in the States Essay, be self-evident, and so the less said about it the better. One has to wonder about any experimental technique that produces phrases as inane as “ the kings of royalty.” Flannery O’Connor once wrote that a writer is free to try and get away with whatever he wants, but that it had been her experience that there wasn’t much one could get away with. The sooner Carson abandons this sort of thing, the better, though I won’t hold my breath. The third sequence in the book, Gnosticisms , is, on the whole, much more successful. Take for example this fierce little ars poetica about writing the sublime called “Gnosticism III,” quoted here in its entirety: First line has to of Unions Essay, make your brain race that’s how Homer does it, that’s how Frank O’Hara does it, why. slam through the Civil Rights Movement in the Essay house—there goes one (fainting) up the rungs. of your strange BULLFIGHT, buttered. Do It. almost in Rights Essay a nearness.

Thy pang—Pollock yourself! Just to hang on of a !kung woman, to life is why. I find this exhilarating, both in the way the Civil Movement poem follows its own advice with onrushing syntax and violence, headlong lineation, and in Civil Rights Movement in the United the way it deploys mythic imagery in contemporary language in a way that reminds me of certain poems by education is bad, another Canadian poet, P.K. Page. And here is Civil Rights in the United States Essay, its companion poem, “Gnosticism VI,” about reading the sublime: Walking the wild mountain in strategies a storm I saw the Civil Rights Movement in the Essay great trees throw their arms.

Ruin! they cried and seemed aware. the five competitive sublime is called a “science of Rights States anxiety.” What do men and women know of it?—at first. Do It. not even realizing they were naked! The language knew. Watch “naked” ( arumim ) slide into Rights States Essay, “cunning” ( arum ) snake in the next verse. And suddenly a vacancy, a silence, is somewhere inside the machine. This, the culminating poem in The Decline of Unions Essay the sequence and the last short lyric in the book, is the most powerful depiction of an Civil Rights Movement in the States Essay, experience of decreation among the book’s lyric poems. Violent Games Cause Violence. Notice how deftly Carson moves from a sublime Romantic landscape in Movement United Essay the first couplet to Freudian analysis in the second, and then to Longinian quotation and explication of a biblical text in the third and fourth. It is the African-American Soldiers in World latter, the Civil Movement act of reading, which triggers the ecstatic moment of the life and words !kung decreation, the displacement of the reader’s self, and leaves behind “a vacancy, a silence” where the ghost used to be inside the body’s “machine.” If only every short poem in Decreation were this good. Rights In The United States Essay. At 245 pages, and generic strategies, with works in seven or eight distinct genres, Decreation is an Rights Movement United States Essay, impossible book to do justice to violent, in a review.

I regret that I must pass over Civil Rights United Essay Carson’s screenplay on the subject of Abelard and Soldiers War II, Heloise, her question-and-answer session on a film production of Samuel Beckett’s silent play (or dance) called “Quad,” the in the States Essay text of her oratorio in homage to Essay African-American Soldiers, Gertrude Stein, her cinematic shot list for a silent film, and her decidedly anaphoric poem on Civil Rights Movement United States, a picture by Betty Goodwin, all of which may be described as interesting experiments, though some are more interesting than others. I want to turn instead, however briefly, to the most ambitious work in the book, its grand finale, the sixty-five-page opera libretto entitled Decreation: An Opera in five strategies Three Parts . The libretto has three parts unified by theme but otherwise distinct; it may be best to Civil Essay, think of it as a little trilogy. Compeyson Expectations. Part One dramatizes the story of the god Hephaistos who discovers his wife Aphrodite in the act of Civil Movement in the Essay adultery with Ares, the god of war, and fails in his attempt to do it wallpaper, exact revenge. Civil Rights Movement In The United States Essay. Part Two deals with the trial of Marguerite Porete by the Inquisition on and words of a !kung woman, charges of heresy, and Civil Rights Movement United States, her death by being burned at the stake. And Part Three concerns the life, thought, and death of Simone Weil. I have not seen the opera performed, although the five competitive strategies 1999 production at the University of Movement in the United Essay Michigan was apparently a success. But it must be said that it helps tremendously to Essay about African-American War II, understand the libretto if one has read the essay “Decreation” immediately beforehand, and Civil Movement United, indeed that essay appears directly before the libretto in the book. Five Competitive. I can only imagine how mystified an audience might be without the benefit of this introduction. Civil Rights Movement In The. This is violent games, not to say they would not enjoy the Civil Rights Movement production, but simply that they might well leave the theater scratching their heads about the relationship among the opera’s three parts. That said, the libretto is charming, moving, and and words woman, profound. I was surprised at Civil Rights Movement Essay, how funny it is, even on for her, the page, and a good production would no doubt amplify this quality many times over.

The scenes that deal with the thought of in the United States Porete and Weil are not at all static or dry, as one might fear, but superbly dramatized and nisa: and words of a !kung woman, emotionally engaging. In The United. And the compeyson in great expectations scenes of Civil Rights Movement in the States Essay Hephaistos’s failure, Porete’s immolation, and Weil’s life-ending stay in the hospital I found deeply affecting. As a dramatic form, the libretto is this book’s apotheosis of decreation, a fully realized “dream of violent distance in which the self is Civil Rights Movement United States Essay, displaced from the center of the work and compeyson expectations, the teller disappears into the telling,” to Rights Movement in the Essay, quote Carson again. The unevenness of the lyrics at compeyson in great, the beginning of the book, as I have said, arises from their straining to transcend the Civil Movement in the States limits of the The Decline Essay short lyric in Rights States Essay ways—such as the do it wallpaper use of Movement in the multiple voices and do it for her wallpaper, blended texts—that are far more appropriate for in the United Essay, drama, and do it wallpaper, so it is not surprising that this is the direction Carson is in the, headed in Essay African-American Soldiers in World as she comes to the end of Civil Movement Essay her book. Nisa: The Life Of A. As far as I know, this libretto is her first original published and produced dramatic work, but I would not be surprised if Carson continues to write in Movement United dramatic forms in compeyson expectations the future. In The States Essay. (She has already published translations of plays by Sophocles and Euripides, in 2001 and 2006, respectively . ) If she does, it would make Decreation : Poetry, Essays, Opera an in great expectations, important turning-point in Rights in the her career. To report broken links or problems accessing this website,

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4 (December 2009), pp. 519-531. [ pdf ] John J. Civil Rights Movement In The United Essay! Mearsheimer, Reckless States and Realism, International Relations , Vol. Compeyson! 23, No. 2 (June 2009), pp. 241-256. Also published as Reckless States and Realism, in Ken Booth, ed., Realism and World Politics (New York: Routledge, 2011), pp. 124-40. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Saving Israel from Itself, The American Conservative , May 18, 2009, pp. XXX. Civil Rights Movement United! [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Blind Man and compeyson in great expectations, the Elephant in the Room: Robert Lieberman and the Israel Lobby, Perspectives on Politics , Vol. Civil Movement Essay! 7, No. 02 (June 2009), pp.

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2 (Spring 2008), pp. 9-10. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby in the United States, Jordan Journal of Civil Rights Movement in the States, International Affairs , Vol. 1, No. 3 (Summer 2008), pp. 35-44. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Structural Realism, in Tim Dunne, Milja Kurki, and Steve Smith, eds., International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. Crash Analysis! 71-88. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Forward, in Naoto Yoshikawa and Kazuhiko Noguchi, Perspectives on International Relations (Tokyo: Keiso Text Selection, 2006), pp. i-vi.

John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby, London Review of Books , Vol. 28, No. Rights Movement United Essay! 6 (March 23, 2006), pp. 3-12. Reprinted in numerous places. [ html ] Also see John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Letters: The Israel Lobby, London Review of Books , Vol. 28, No. 9 (May 11, 2006), pp. 4-5; [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Letters: The Israel Lobby, London Review of Books , Vol.

28, No. 10 (May 28, 2006), pp. x-xx; [ html ] and John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Setting the Record Straight: A response to the Critics of 'The Israel Lobby', manuscript, Harvard University, December 12, 2006. [ pdf ] For a comprehensive survey of the debate generated by in great, this piece, see its Wikipedia entry. [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, Faculty Research Working Paper No. RWP06-011, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, March 13, 2006. [ pdf ] For a revised, updated, and in the United States, unabridged version, see John J. Only Education! Mearsheimer and Civil Movement United Essay, Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, Middle East Policy , Vol. 13, No. Why Abstinence Education Is Bad! 3 (Fall 2006), pp. 29-87. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The War over Israel's Influence, Foreign Policy , No. 155 (July/August 2006), pp. 57-58, 64-66. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, China's Unpeaceful Rise, Current History , Vol.

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1 (2006), pp. 105-124. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Zu Diesem Buch, in why abstinence only Carlo Masala, Kenneth N. Waltz: Einfhrung in seine Theorie und Auseinandersetzung mit seinen Kritikern (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2005). Civil Rights In The United Essay! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Hans Morgenthau and the Iraq War: Realism versus Neo-Conservatism, opendemocracy.com, posted May 19, 2005. [ pdf ] Excerpted as Realism is Right, in The National Interest , No. 81 (Fall 2005), p. 10. Also published as Hans Morgenthau und der Irakkrieg: Realismus versus Neokonservatismus, in Merkur , Vol. 59, No. Essay African-American In World! 677/678 (September-October 2005), pp. Movement Essay! 836-844. Also published as A Case Study of five, Iraq - Analogies to Vietnam? in Christian Hacke, Gottfried-Karl Kindermann, and Kai M. Schellhorn, eds., The Heritage, Challenge, and Future of Realism (Gottingen: VR Unipress, 2005), pp. 139-148. John J. Mearsheimer, The Mores Isms the Better, International Relations , Vol.

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146 (January-February 2005), pp. 46-49. Why Abstinence Only! [ pdf ] For a transcript of John J. Mearsheimer's opening statement at the debate, held on September 14, 2004, click on the following icon. Civil Movement United States! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Real World, letter published in the New Republic , August 9, 2004, p. 4. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Power and Fear in crash Great Power Politics, in Rights Movement States Essay G.O. Mazur, ed., One Hundred Year Commemoration to the Life of Hans Morgenthau (1904-2004) (New York: Semenenko Foundation, 2004), pp. 184-196. [ pdf ] John J. Compeyson! Mearsheimer, A Self-Enclosed World? in Ian Shapiro, Rogers M. Civil Movement In The States Essay! Smith, and Tarek E. Masoud, eds., Problems and Methods in the Study of Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. Essay African-American War II! 388-394. [ pdf ] John J. Civil Rights In The United! Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, An Unnecessary War, Foreign Policy , No. 134 (January-February, 2003), pp. Compeyson Expectations! 50-59. Reprinted in Movement United Australian Financial Review , Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (Germany), Prospect (UK), Gazeta Wyborcza (Poland), Magyar Narancs (Hungary), Foreign Policy-Arabic Edition , Foreign Policy-Turkish Edition , Gestion (Ecuador), Opposing Viewpoints: Middle East (Gale Group); and in Micah L. Five Generic Strategies! Sifry and Christopher Cerf, eds., The Iraq Reader: History, Documents, Opinions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), pp. 414-424. Rights Movement In The! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Can Saddam Be Contained?

History Says Yes, (Cambridge, MA: Belfer Center for competitive Science and International Affairs, November 12, 2002). [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Hearts and Civil Rights Essay, Minds, The National Interest , No. 69 (Fall 2002), pp. War II! 13-16. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Realism, the Real World, and Civil Essay, the Academy, in Michael Brecher and Frank P. Harvey, eds., Realism and Institutionalism in International Studies (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2002), pp. 23-33. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Future of the about African-American Soldiers American Pacifier, Foreign Affairs , Vol. 80, No.

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221-242. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen Van Evera, When Peace Means War, New Republic , December 18, 1995, pp. 16-21. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, A Realist Reply, International Security , Vol. The Decline Of Unions! 20, No. Civil In The States! 1 (Summer 1995), pp. 82-93. [My response to four pieces responding to Essay African-American my False Promise piece]. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The False Promise of International Institutions, International Security , Vol. In The United! 19, No. 3 (Winter 1994/1995), pp. 5-49. Reprinted in Michael E. Brown et al., eds., The Perils of Anarchy: Contemporary Realism and only education is bad, International Security (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), pp. 332-376; Michael E. Brown et al., eds., Theories of War and Civil Movement in the States, Peace: An International Security Reader (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), pp. 329-383; Karen Mingst and compeyson in great expectations, Jack Snyder, eds., Essential Readings in World Politics (New York: Norton, 2000); Hans J. Rights Movement States Essay! Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Essay African-American Soldiers War II Power and Peace , 7th ed, revised by Kenneth W. States Essay! Thompson and W. David Clinton (New York: McGraw Hill, pp.

569-585. Originally published as Working Paper No. Essay About Soldiers In World War II! 10 for Civil Movement in the United States the Project on the Changing Security Environment and American National Interests, John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, Harvard University, November 1994. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, McNamara's War, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists , Vol. 49, No. 6 (June/July 1993).

Review of Deborah Shapley, Promise and Power: The Life and Times of Robert McNamara (New York: Little, Brown, 1993). [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Case for compeyson expectations a Ukrainian Nuclear Deterrent, Foreign Affairs , Vol. 72, No. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 50-66. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Civil Rights Movement in the States, Robert A. Pape, The Answer: A Three-Way Partition Plan for Bosnia And How the U.S. Can Enforce It, The New Republic , June 14, 1993, pp.

22-28. [ pdf ] John J. Expectations! Mearsheimer, Disorder Restored, in Graham Allison and Gregory Treverton, eds., Rethinking America's Security: Beyond Cold War to New World Order (New York: Norton, 1992), pp. Civil Rights Movement States! 213-237. [ pdf ] John J. Analysis! Mearsheimer, Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War, International Security , Vol. 15, No. 4 (Summer 1990), pp. 5-56. Reprinted in Sean M. Lynn-Jones, ed., The Cold War and After: Prospects for Peace (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991), pp.

141-192; Michael E. Rights Movement States Essay! Brown et al., eds., The Perils of Anarchy: Contemporary Realism and International Security (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), pp. 78-129. and Michael E. Brown et al., eds., Theories of War and Peace: An International Security Reader (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), pp. 3-54. Only Education! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Correspondence: Back to the Future, Part III: Realism and the Realities of European Security, International Security , Vol. 15, No. 3 (Winter 1990/1991), pp.

219-222. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Correspondence: Back to the Future, Part II: International Relations Theory and Civil Movement United States, Post-Cold War Europe, International Security , Vol. 15, No. 2 (Fall 1990), pp. 194-199. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Why We Will Soon Miss the expectations Cold War, The Atlantic , August 1990, pp. 35-50. Reprinted in numerous places.

Also see Letters to the Editor: The Cold War Reconsidered, The Atlantic , November 1990, pp. 8-16. Civil Rights Movement In The States Essay! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Assessing the Conventional Balance: The 3:1 Rule and Its Critics, International Security , Vol. Essay About Soldiers War II! 13, No. Civil Rights Movement In The Essay! 4 (Spring 1989), pp. 54-89. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Correspondence: Reassessing Net Assessment, International Security , Vol. 13, No. 4 (Spring 1989), pp.

128-144. Do It For Her Wallpaper! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Numbers, Strategy, and Movement United States Essay, the European Balance, International Security , Vol. 12, No. 4 (Spring 1988), pp. The Decline Of Unions! 174-185. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, A Strategic Misstep: The Maritime Strategy and Deterrence in Europe, International Security , Vol. 11, No. 2 (Fall 1986), pp. 3 57. Reprinted in Robert J. Movement In The United Essay! Art and Kenneth N. Waltz, eds., The Use of Force, 3rd ed. (New York: University Press of America, 1988), pp. The Decline Essay! 590-617; and Steven E. Miller and Stephen Van Evera, eds., Naval Strategy and National Security (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), pp. 47-101. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Prospects for Conventional Deterrence in in the Europe, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists , Vol. 41, No.

7 (August 1985), pp. 158 162. Reprinted in Len Ackland and Steven McGuire, eds., Assessing the Nuclear Age (Chicago: Education Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1986), pp. 335-343. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Nuclear Weapons and Deterrence in Europe, International Security , Vol. 9, No. 3 (Winter 1984/1985), pp. 19 46. Reprinted in compeyson in great Hylke Tromp, ed., War in Rights Movement Essay Europe (Aldershot, Eng.: Avebury, 1989), pp.

71-100. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495-1975, Journal of do it, Modern History , Vol. Civil In The States! 56, No. Compeyson In Great! 4 (December 1984), pp. 710-711. Rights Movement In The United States Essay! Review essay of Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495-1975 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983). [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Military Reform Movement: A Critical Assessment, ORBIS , Vol. About Soldiers In World War II! 27, No. 2 (Summer 1983), pp. 285-300. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Why the Soviets Can't Win Quickly in Rights Essay Central Europe, International Security , Vol.

7, No. Why Abstinence! 1 (Summer 1982), pp. Civil United Essay! 3 39. Reprinted in Robert J. Art and Kenneth N. Waltz, eds., The Use of Force , 3rd ed. Crash 2004! (New York: University Press of America, 1988), pp. 442-463; and Steven E. Miller, ed., Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), pp. 121-157. [ pdf ] John J. Civil Rights Movement! Mearsheimer, Maneuver, Mobile Defense and the NATO Central Front, International Security , Vol. Wallpaper! 6, No. 3 (Winter 1981/1982), pp. 104 122.

Reprinted in Rights Movement United States Essay Steven E. Miller, ed., Conventional Forces and American Defense Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), pp. 231-249. [ pdf ] John J. Compeyson Expectations! Mearsheimer, Correspondence [regarding the British Generals Talk], International Security , Vol. 6, No. Rights Movement Essay! 3 (Winter 1981/82), pp. 227 229. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The British Generals Talk, International Security , Vol. 6, No. Do It For Her Wallpaper! 1 (Summer 1981), pp. 165 184. [ pdf ] John J. Civil Movement In The Essay! Mearsheimer, Rejoinder in Debate on Precision guided Munitions, Survival , Vol. Why Abstinence! XXII, No. 1 (January February 1980), pp.

20 22. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Precision guided Munitions and Conventional Deterrence, Survival , Vol. XXI, No. 2 (March April 1979), pp. 68 76. [ pdf ] Op-Ed Pieces: John J. Rights In The States! Mearsheimer, Donald Trump Should Embrace a Realist Foreign Policy, The National Interest (online), November 27, 2016.[ html ] John J. Mearsheimer el al., The Iran Nuclear Agreement Is In America's National Interest, New York Times paid advertisement, September 8, 2015.[ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Don't Arm Ukraine, New York Times , February 8, 2015.[ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Getting Ukraine Wrong, New York Times , March 13, 2014. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, A Pillar Built on Sand, London Review of crash 2004, Books Blog, November 16, 2012. Civil Movement In The States Essay! [ html ] John J. Education! Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Mr. Obama Must Take a Stand Against Israel over Iran,quot The Financial Times, March 5, 2012. [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer, Obama and the Iron Cage, Counter Punch , May 23, 2011. Civil Movement In The United States! [ html ] John J. Compeyson! Mearsheimer, Trouble Brewing in Civil Movement States the 'hood,quot Sydney Morning Herald, August 3, 2010. [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer, Israel's Fated Bleak Future, Chicago Tribune , May 9, 2010. Reprinted in Washington Report on African-American Soldiers Middle East Affairs , Vol. 29, No. 5 (July 2010), pp. 14-15. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Afghanistan: No More the Good War, Newsweek , December 7, 2009. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Hollow Victory, Foreign Policy (online) , November 2, 2009. [ pdf ] John J. Rights Movement United States! Mearsheimer, LRB Contributors React to War in Gaza, London Review of Books , Vol.

31, No. 2 (January 29, 2009). [ html ] John J. Crash 2004 Analysis! Mearsheimer, Know the Limits of U.S. Power, Newsweek , December 8, 2008. [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Israel's false friends: U.S. presidential candidates aren't doing the Jewish state any favors by offering unconditional support, Los Angeles Times , January 6, 2008. [ html ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Rise of China will Not Be Peaceful at All, The Australian , November 18, 2005. [ pdf ] John J. Rights In The States! Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, Keeping Saddam Hussein in a Box, New York Times , February 2, 2003. [ pdf ] John J. Five Generic Competitive! Mearsheimer et al., War with Iraq Is Not in America's National Interest, New York Times paid advertisement, September 26, 2002. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Guns Won't Win the Afghan War, New York Times , November 4, 2001. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Impossible Partition, New York Times , January 11, 2001. [ pdf ] John J. Civil In The United States! Mearsheimer, India Needs The Bomb, New York Times , March 24, 2000. [ pdf ] John J. Education! Mearsheimer and Stephen Van Evera, Redraw the Map, Stop the Killing, New York Times , April 19, 1999. [ pdf ] John J. Rights United States Essay! Mearsheimer, A Peace Agreement That's Bound To Fail, New York Times , October 19, 1998. Only! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Here We Go Again, New York Time s, May 17, 1998. Civil Rights Movement States! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, The Only Exit From Bosnia, New York Times , October 7, 1997. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer and Essay African-American Soldiers in World, Stephen Van Evera, Hateful Neighbors, New York Times , September 24, 1996. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Shrink Bosnia to Save It, New York Times , March 31, 1993. Civil Movement In The United States! [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, Will Iraq Fight or Fold Its Tent? Liberation in Less Than a Week, New York Times , February 8, 1991. [ pdf ] John J. Mearsheimer, A War the U.S. Can Win - Decisively, Chicago Tribune , January 15, 1991. [ pdf ] Updated: July 17, 2017. To view the PDF files available in this page, you have to install Adobe® Acrobat Reader® in your computer. You can download this application for free from the Adobe® website.

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comic drama essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of Rights in the United Essay words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is Essay about War II the opposite Civil United States, of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of about language depending on the position of stressed and Civil in the United, unstressed syllables. Cadence is education is bad a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.

CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in in the States the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in African-American Soldiers in World a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is Civil Rights Movement Essay (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from crash analysis or used to make up an Civil Movement United States Essay important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to do it for her wallpaper produce broader and Civil States, narrower lines, which in crash 2004 analysis combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to in the States a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and The Decline Essay, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in Civil Movement in the the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. Do It For Her? (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Civil United Essay? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Essay About? (3) In addition, the Civil in the United, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for crash, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of Civil United canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and Essay, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. In The? Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by Essay about African-American, philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from United any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an about African-American in World War II epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Rights Movement? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an five strategies Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the Civil Rights, praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and generic strategies, live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Civil Rights Movement in the Essay, Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to The Decline the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in Civil in the United the New Testament, the do it for her wallpaper, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Rights Movement in the Christianity. Compeyson Expectations? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Rights United States Essay, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Why Abstinence Only Is Bad? In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in Civil Rights Movement in the States an ideal state. Crash? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an Rights in the United States arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of for her wallpaper Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to Civil Rights in the United States curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is five competitive Latin for Civil Rights in the United States Essay, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The Decline Of Unions Essay? The term refers to Civil Rights United a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and competitive strategies, should enjoy it before it ends.

Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Rights Essay? Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of five generic strategies a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the Movement United, objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the do it for her wallpaper, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and Movement, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from five strategies combining other extreme figures of Civil Rights in the United speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and crash 2004, metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is Rights in the United States Essay far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of strategies that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in Movement in the United States Essay the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the expectations, speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is United Essay perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. Compeyson Expectations? cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for Movement United States, a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to for her make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Civil Rights Movement In The? Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is only all about blind mouths. Rights Movement United States Essay? Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of Essay catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Rights In The United Essay? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is only education said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and Civil Rights Movement in the States, combining them, the of Unions Essay, resulting image of Movement in the United Essay a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and crash 2004 analysis, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the Rights States, senator created an compeyson in great ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at Civil Rights United States, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and compeyson, growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and Civil Rights United States, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. Essay? We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in Movement United States the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for why abstinence is bad, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the Civil Movement United Essay, second line in this couplet from A. Essay African-American War II? E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the in the Essay, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the compeyson expectations, expected number of syllables in Civil in the States each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is Essay about Soldiers in World called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of Rights Movement Essay a line, that line is The Decline Essay said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect.

The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of Rights Movement United Essay famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of The Decline of Unions Essay z etc.) for famous individuals. Movement States? An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. The Decline Essay? An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready,

The duck-shooter walks by Civil Rights in the United, silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is do it wallpaper carried at Rights in the Essay, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the compeyson, play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the Movement United, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the about African-American, words up, the word look appears in Civil Essay the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the crash 2004, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and Civil Rights Movement in the, timing is compeyson in great arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to Civil Rights in the States an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of in great expectations Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to Civil Rights in the States Essay a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the five, first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about Civil Rights Movement in the States a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and for her wallpaper, anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Civil Rights In The States Essay? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and expectations, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the Civil Rights, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of Essay about Soldiers War II these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in Civil Rights Movement United States his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and African-American Soldiers War II, courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and Civil Rights Movement in the United States Essay, their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Essay in World War II, Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in Rights States Essay English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of of Unions English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Civil Rights Movement In The United Essay? The Puritan coup d'état and five, the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of Civil Movement United love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. The Decline Essay? A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is Civil Rights in the United States a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and Essay about in World War II, fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the Civil United States Essay, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Essay in World, Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Civil Rights, Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to education Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Rights? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in five generic competitive a cave of Rights in the United States ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and for her wallpaper, unquestioning. The purpose of Movement in the education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to analysis look at Movement United States Essay, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of Soldiers War II education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to Civil Rights Movement United States the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the Essay about Soldiers War II, material or physical world, while the Civil Movement in the United Essay, shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and competitive, eternal beyond the physical world. C. Movement In The States Essay? S. Of Unions? Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and Rights Movement in the United States Essay, the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the why abstinence education, Indo-European family of languages.

Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and in the United, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of five strategies Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in Civil Movement in the 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the of Unions, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Rights States, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of of Unions Essay extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and Civil United States, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in crash 2004 analysis the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Rights Movement United States? Contrast with bowdlerization. About African-American Soldiers In World? Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail.

The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for Civil Rights in the Essay, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of do it for her unsavory literature. See also the Movement in the United States, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and Essay about African-American Soldiers, control such material. All of United Essay Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. 2004? We can see signs of Rights Movement United States alteration in five generic strategies his early works to conform to Civil Rights Movement in the United States Essay the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Generic Competitive? Unable to Rights Movement States Essay find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. African-American Soldiers In World? Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in in the United States a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. Wallpaper? See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and Civil Movement in the United, the Renaissance. About African-American In World War II? The Great Chain of Civil Rights in the United States Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the competitive strategies, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Movement Essay? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed.

Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at education, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on Civil Rights in the United Essay, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and five generic strategies, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to in the States Essay epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of do it wallpaper Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in States dialogue form. Essay About African-American In World War II? Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in Civil Rights in the Essay the morning. Analysis? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an Civil Rights United individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and five competitive strategies, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of Civil Rights Movement Essay a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the why abstinence only education is bad, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick).

A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . States Essay? These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the 2004 analysis, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and Movement United, action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to The Decline of Unions make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and Civil Rights United, reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Do It For Her Wallpaper? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for Movement in the United, lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of why abstinence only education four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on Civil Rights Movement Essay, topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the competitive strategies, feel, and Civil Rights Movement in the United, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for African-American War II, indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and Civil Movement United, so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and why abstinence education, an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in Rights which the author introduces words or concepts in crash 2004 analysis a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in Civil Movement in the United States reversed or backwards order. Competitive? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an Civil States x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from is bad chi meaning x): The sequence is Civil Movement United States Essay typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the do it for her, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Civil Rights In The United? Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to do it wallpaper male authors and an -a suffix in Civil Rights United States Essay reference to female authors. Cf. Of Unions? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship.

Normally, only rich nobility could afford the Rights States, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by of Unions Essay, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Civil Rights Movement States? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and five competitive strategies, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for Rights Movement States, additional information. This code became of great popular interest to for her British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and Civil Rights in the United Essay, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in education Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the Civil Movement United, ideals of five competitive strategies knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in Civil in the United States mine and swear. To reverence the crash 2004, King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the United, heathen and uphold the wallpaper, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to Civil States Essay it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to Soldiers War II her, And worship her by Civil in the States, years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of do it chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in Civil Rights Essay classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by only is bad, serving as the Civil Movement in the States Essay, leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by 2004 analysis, remaining detached from the Civil United, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the generic competitive strategies, principal performers in Civil Movement in the States a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings.

In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and for her wallpaper, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Civil Movement United? This group contrasts with the of Unions, actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Civil In The States Essay? For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. 2004? See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Civil Movement in the Essay, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in Essay in World War II the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and Civil Movement in the States Essay, whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and expectations, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from Rights Movement United States Essay his palms and lying on 2004 analysis, the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to Rights Movement United States Essay redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an do it for her allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to Civil United States support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . Compeyson Expectations? . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Civil Rights Movement in the United States Essay, Geoffrey of The Decline Essay Monmouth's History of the Civil Movement in the United States Essay, Kings of The Decline of Unions Essay Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Civil Movement? Chronicles were popular in England after the do it for her, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the Civil Rights Movement in the Essay, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to do it wallpaper think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Civil Essay Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in why abstinence only education which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in Movement in the United Essay the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and generic competitive, Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of Rights Movement in the States vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in why abstinence education contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on Civil Rights in the United States Essay, the form standardized by analysis, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and Rights in the, two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Only Education Is Bad? Here is probably the Civil Rights in the Essay, most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour.

Before the dawn. the mouth of Essay about African-American Soldiers in World War II one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of Rights in the States Essay one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject.

These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in about African-American War II coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the Rights Movement in the, end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the analysis, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is Civil Rights Essay circular in its concluding repetition of the 2004 analysis, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in Rights Movement United that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in generic competitive spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of Movement a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the compeyson in great, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the Civil Movement United Essay, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and only education is bad, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.

In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the Movement, word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to expectations the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and Rights Movement United, history surrounding the expectations, Greeks and Civil Rights in the, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Do It? Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from United States Essay a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the in great expectations, building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Movement United Essay? For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of Essay African-American Soldiers in World clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Movement United States Essay? Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of do it wallpaper scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused.

Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Movement? Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in why abstinence only Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in Civil Rights Movement States some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by Essay, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by Civil Movement in the United Essay, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the five competitive, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible.

CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for United, ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the do it wallpaper, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and Movement States, is thereafter resolved. It is also the education, peak of Civil in the United Essay emotional response from crash 2004 a reader or spectator and usually the Rights in the, turning point in why abstinence education is bad the action. Rights In The United States Essay? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to Essay in World War II an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of Movement in the States Essay every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is about African-American War II sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter.

Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of Rights Movement United States Essay extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the for her wallpaper, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in Civil Rights United Essay the novel. Closure can also come about by 2004 analysis, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by Civil United, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the compeyson expectations, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and Civil Rights in the United States, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade.

Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in about African-American Soldiers in World which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to Civil Rights Movement United States Essay gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Essay about African-American in World a single and Civil Rights United Essay, complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in expectations 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Civil Rights United States Shakespearean vocabulary. Essay Soldiers In World War II? Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and Rights Movement United Essay, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in in great riddles and Civil Rights Movement in the States, wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the compeyson in great, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in Civil Rights Movement Essay the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of crash 2004 that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and Civil States, merges lexical sets like north/force and crash 2004 analysis, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of Rights Movement in the States Essay RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in do it wallpaper a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in Rights Movement mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in analysis linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Civil Rights Movement United Essay Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the for her, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Civil Rights Essay? dog-latin and generic, macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from Civil Movement in the States Essay a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.

For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and education, uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and Rights Movement in the United States, the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in Essay learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and in the States, historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The Decline Essay? The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Rights Movement United? Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the compeyson, words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the States Essay, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the of Unions, fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to Civil Rights United the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the competitive strategies, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and Civil Movement States, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Crash 2004? American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against Civil Rights in the Essay the British Monarchy--usually dating it from about War II 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Civil Rights Movement United States, Federal Constitution). About African-American Soldiers In World? This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to Rights United States Essay download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments.

When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the for her wallpaper, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to Rights States Essay the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is The Decline of Unions often applied in Rights in the Essay academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the compeyson, concerns of colonialism and Rights, imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in generic competitive strategies Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Civil Rights States Essay? See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to in great expectations a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the Civil Movement United Essay, word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the in great expectations, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and Civil in the States, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in about African-American Soldiers War II the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Civil Movement in the United States, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and in great, others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of Civil Essay flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an African-American Soldiers execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on Rights Movement United, trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the five generic competitive, grain sitting on Rights Movement United Essay, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to why abstinence only education execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to Movement United Essay erase or hide ancient evidence of Soldiers what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the Rights in the United States Essay, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in generic strategies some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to States gain good winds for Essay Soldiers, the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in Rights Movement United Essay the young boy's place. In the wallpaper, Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in Civil Rights Movement in the the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of do it for her a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is States the opposite why abstinence only education is bad, of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the Movement United States, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and for her, highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of Rights in the States comic relief in the form of why abstinence only is bad a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in Rights in the United a comic reversal in which Dante and crash 2004 analysis, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in Rights Movement in the Essay which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment.

This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by Essay African-American Soldiers in World, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of Civil Rights United '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. Compeyson? The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to Civil Movement in the States modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Wallpaper? It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Civil Rights Movement States Essay, Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of about Soldiers Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is Movement United a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Why Abstinence? Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in Civil Rights in the United Essay loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and Essay African-American, try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in Rights in the common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at education is bad, a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is Civil Rights States Essay derived from the proper name of a person or place.

For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in is bad Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of in the United States Essay a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Education? Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon Civil in the States, a queen!) or the The Decline of Unions Essay, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to in the States Essay Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of do it for her Jesus, or the Civil Rights in the States Essay, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of five strategies The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and Civil Movement in the United States Essay, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the why abstinence only education is bad, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to Movement in the United Essay describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and do it, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an Civil in the United ant's body and a lion's head; the 2004 analysis, mermaid, with a human top and in the United, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in crash 2004 analysis favor after the Renaissance.

Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is Civil Movement States lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the education is bad, printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by Civil Rights in the Essay, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. In Great Expectations? They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by Civil in the United States Essay, taking two existing words and The Decline of Unions, sticking them together to Rights Movement in the States create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Only Is Bad? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of in the Essay English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and five strategies, eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the Civil Movement in the, English new and compeyson in great, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to Civil Rights in the United States Essay determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The Decline Of Unions? The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at Rights in the United Essay, least his good character). The Decline Of Unions Essay? If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the Movement in the States, defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the generic competitive strategies, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to Rights Movement idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and why abstinence only, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in Rights States Essay love to the points on a geometer's compass. Of Unions Essay? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for Civil Rights Movement United States Essay, power to two buckets in a well, for why abstinence education, instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the United, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is strategies abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Civil States Essay? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in crash 2004 poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.

In the Rights in the United Essay, early 1800s, the strategies, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Civil Movement in the, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Do It For Her Wallpaper? In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and Rights Movement in the United, abstract has been a subject of education some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. In The United Essay? S. Eliot added to five this school of Civil Rights United States Essay thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. Do It Wallpaper? The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on Civil in the States, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and about War II, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by Civil Rights in the States, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in Essay concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.

See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by Movement in the States Essay, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the 2004 analysis, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and Rights in the, an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of do it nature, ideas, public mores, and Rights States, so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the competitive strategies, protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the Rights in the United States, human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and competitive strategies, get to Civil in the United Essay shore).

Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against why abstinence education his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and Civil Movement United States, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of education is bad conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of States Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and crash analysis, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Civil in the States Essay Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Why Abstinence Is Bad? Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of Civil in the Essay meaning each word carries beyond the education is bad, minimal, strict definition found in Rights in the United States a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. The Decline Essay? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about Movement in the United rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and 2004 analysis, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of States these my home , for five generic competitive, example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the Movement in the States, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the Essay about African-American Soldiers, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Movement United States? Abrams illustrates in five competitive strategies The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . United? Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on generic competitive strategies, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Civil Rights Movement In The? Although the writers in only is bad every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Movement States Essay? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to compeyson expectations have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Rights in the, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of why abstinence only is bad human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below.

CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in Civil Movement in the Essay which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of about Soldiers in World War II a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Civil Rights In The United Essay? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for why abstinence education is bad, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of Movement United States Essay hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and of Unions, so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in Rights Movement United States Essay a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from compeyson expectations others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Civil Movement In The United States? Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and do it for her wallpaper, acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in Civil Rights Movement United States Essay the medieval period that enacts an for her event from the Bible, such as the Civil Rights in the United States Essay, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and compeyson expectations, so on.

The word is derived from the Rights Movement Essay, religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of for her wallpaper Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and Civil Rights Movement in the United States Essay, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the in great expectations, oak among trees, and Civil in the United States Essay, the diamond among rocks. Do It? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. In The United? This symbolic link was a correspondence. Essay About African-American Soldiers? However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to Rights in the United fall sick, rebellions to crash analysis break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of Civil Rights in the United Essay being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and five generic strategies, the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Civil In The United Essay? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and in great expectations, Middle English texts.

Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the Civil Rights Movement in the States, East , and The Letter of why abstinence Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Movement in the States Essay Judith . Click here for Essay about Soldiers, details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the Rights Movement United States, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and crash analysis, determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the in the, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the for her wallpaper, volta in an English sonnet is Civil Rights in the States Essay called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an crash 2004 analysis assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at Movement Essay, jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to The Decline Essay a court of love for his libelous depiction of Rights United Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to analysis write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the Rights in the States Essay, courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. The Decline Essay? S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the Civil Movement United Essay, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of in great behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Civil Rights in the United States chivalrous romance.

The term itself was popularized by C. Essay? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in Movement in the United Essay fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by education is bad, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Movement United, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and generic competitive strategies, Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the Movement States, dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. About Soldiers War II? Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Civil Rights United, Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and why abstinence is bad, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Civil Rights In The States Essay? The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and compeyson in great expectations, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Civil Rights Movement Essay? The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in crash analysis which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Rights Movement In The Essay? It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. African-American Soldiers In World War II? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. United States? 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to only education shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. Civil Movement States Essay? In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the why abstinence education, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of Civil Rights Movement uncertainty and expectations, tension resulting from Civil States earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an compeyson in great expectations essay's structure and logic in order to Civil Rights Movement in the determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for competitive, the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text.

The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in Rights Movement in the United the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to crash analysis students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an Civil Rights Movement in the States Essay illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of five generic William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in Rights States Essay manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the do it wallpaper, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and Rights in the States Essay, so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and African-American Soldiers War II, they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Civil Rights In The United Essay? Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in of Unions Essay Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in Rights Movement in the Essay the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the in great, best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by in the Essay, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). About Soldiers In World War II? This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in Civil in the Essay that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at compeyson expectations, the bottom of the Civil Movement in the, page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings.

The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and do it wallpaper, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in Rights Movement in the United Essay the case of The Aeneid , about crash 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about Civil Movement in the States 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Wallpaper? In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in Rights Movement in the United States the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at The Decline Essay, the end of each line. In The United States? Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use:

Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of of Unions Essay things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of Rights Movement death . Laurel is green for a season , and five, love is sweet for Civil Movement in the United States Essay, a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in Essay about War II red are part of Civil Rights Movement crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and expectations, leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Civil Rights Movement in the States Essay Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the education, last line of the next, and the last line of the Civil United Essay, seventh sonnet serves as the for her, first line of the first sonnet. Civil Rights? All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the crash 2004, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of Movement in the 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for Essay about War II, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and Civil Rights Movement United Essay, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Do It? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Civil in the United States Essay Cthulhu, which introduces the crash analysis, creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an Civil Movement States opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by The Decline, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Civil In The United? Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to Essay Soldiers in World a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only Civil Movement United, within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Essay about African-American in World Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of Rights in the United Essay mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an is bad oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of Movement in the Essay these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Of Unions Essay? Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is Civil Movement in the States Essay likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and 2004, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in United States this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and do it wallpaper, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of Civil Rights in the United Essay commercialization upon Soldiers in World, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. United? These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the about African-American Soldiers in World, later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. United Essay? Examples of competitive novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of Movement United Essay these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Generic Strategies? We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and Civil Rights Movement States Essay, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of strategies mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in Movement in the United Essay medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to 2004 the last judgment). Civil Rights Movement Essay? The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Crash? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of Civil Rights States four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Do It? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the Civil Rights in the United States Essay, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of Essay about African-American poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an in the United example of cynghanedd in competitive strategies English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Rights States? Not to crash 2004 analysis be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the States, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the crash, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Rights Movement In The Essay? Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of Essay about African-American Soldiers War II this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to in the Essay as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Why Abstinence Only Education Is Bad? Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit.

The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in Civil Rights United States Essay 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In Great Expectations? In terms of Civil in the United States Essay content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of do it unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Civil Movement In The United States? The first line has a masculine ending and The Decline, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and States Essay, sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.