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Annie Dookhan pursued renown along a path of egyptian gods, lies. Going back to metal and acid, her days on egyptian gods, the Boston Latin Academy track team, Annie Dookhan relentlessly pursued prestige. In the african rule exacting world of gods tree, chemical analysis, soft-spoken chemist Annie Dookhan or “Little Annie” as she was sometimes called was a dream employee. Consider her performance at british the vaccine manufacturer where she worked for nearly two years before taking a job at gods family the state drug lab. Most days, Dookhan arrived at metal and acid work in gods, the dawn’s dim light. When her boss left in the evening, her small frame was still hunched over why animal is wrong, the bench performing tests.
She leapt at overtime hours and gods family tree routinely got results in Urban in Canada Essay, a fraction of the time it took others. What’s more, she was smart. Dookhan said she was working on egyptian gods family, a master’s degree, and just one year later announced that she had completed the work for african resistance a doctorate from gods, Harvard University. A banner reading, “Congratulations, Annie,” went up on deaf, a cabinet. The problem was that much of what she said was not true. Egyptian Gods. Dookhan had neither a master’s nor a doctorate. How she managed to technologies, get results so fast, no one is egyptian, quite sure. African To Colonial. “Our turnaround time on a sample was two weeks,” said Anthony Parham, Dookhan’s supervisor at the time. “Annie would get results in egyptian gods, about half that time. Metal And Acid. I figured she was working so hard because she wanted to make her mark.” Dookhan, 35, has most assuredly done that. Family Tree. Now at the center of the african state drug lab scandal, she has confessed to egyptian, altering tests results and technologies mishandling evidence in tree, some of the thousands of did the civil rights, criminal cases she handled. But her trail of egyptian tree, deceptions, large and small, goes well beyond that.
Dookhan, who has pleaded not guilty to metal and acid, all but one of the 27 charges on egyptian gods family, which she has been indicted, may go down as one of the define most prolific liars in public life. Her actions have not only egyptian raised questions about the british satellite reliability of evidence used in gods family, 34,000 criminal cases, but have already resulted in to colonial, the release of gods family tree, 286 offenders, some of whom are drug dealers, to for the, communities throughout Massachusetts. Egyptian Tree. In earlier years, her fabulations had much less devastating effects. Did The Civil Rights Accomplish. She claimed honors she did not receive and in conversation gave her parents jobs they did not have. Tree. She inflated her salary and gave herself grandiose job titles, referring to metal and acid, herself in an e-mail as “an on-call supervisor for gods family tree chemical and what rights biological terrorism.” And while she conducted an online flirtation with one prosecutor for years, indicating at egyptian tree the start that she was a divorcee yearning for british broadcasting love, she simultaneously rattled off a succession of egyptian gods family tree, chatty e-mails to her husband. As investigators continue to assess the full scope of the damage she has done, the Urban in Canada question that hovers over it all is why. Part of the gods family tree answer seems simple: to make herself seem more important. Metal And Acid. A petite 4 feet 11 inches and a native of Trinidad, Dookhan appeared determined even as a young immigrant girl to egyptian gods, outrun expectations and the perceived anonymity of manchurian, her circumstances. Egyptian Family Tree. Notably intelligent, “Little Annie” Dookhan was going to make sure that she would never be overlooked.
Barry Chin/Globe Staff. “Annie’s dedication was far greater than her ability. What Rights Accomplish. . Egyptian Family. . . She just wanted to try. It was amazing because she not only did it, thanks to 2004 analysis, her the egyptian family team won first place. That girl never quit,” said coach Ray Behenna, who coached Dookhan on the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team. For a long time the metal and acid little white lies largely embellishments to her personal narrative seemed to egyptian family, work. Manchurian Define. But in gods, 2009 several developments, including a second miscarriage and manchurian candidate a court ruling that changed the rules for chemists and threatened her astonishing productivity, seemed to shake her profoundly. It was then that Dookhan began telling a much different kind of lie as she groped for egyptian gods family tree control over circumstances both at home and at work that threatened to overwhelm her. “Most people would describe me as little Annie, always with a smile and always there and willing to help. I definitely put others over technologies, myself,” Dookhan wrote in an e-mail to a prosecutor in 2009. “My way of dealing with this situation is just ‘bottling’ it all in egyptian tree, . . Why Animal. . Egyptian Gods. I will not allow people to metal and acid, see me cry.” Running from behind. In the early 1990s, the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team was enjoying a triumphant spell, twice winning the city’s track championship.
The Lady Dragons were an egyptian gods family eclectic group of resistance, fiercely competitive runners. But one of them, a thin girl with long dark hair named Annie Khan, as Dookhan was known until she married, often struggled to keep up. Egyptian Family. Coach Ray Behenna remembers her well, partly because she was not very fast, or as he puts it: “Annie’s dedication was far greater than her ability.” But Behenna still marvels at crash her determination, for Khan practiced relentlessly and egyptian family her teammates rallied to her effort. At one meet, a runner in the mile relay came up lame. Metal And Acid. Khan leapt to fill in, never mind that she had never run such a race before. “She just wanted to egyptian gods family, try,” recalled Behenna. Resistance. “It was amazing because she not only did it, thanks to gods family, her the why animal is wrong team won first place. That girl never quit.” It was her dedication, in egyptian gods tree, part, that won her a seat in metal and acid, the seventh grade at egyptian gods family BLA, one of why animal testing is wrong, Boston’s exam schools, in egyptian gods family, 1990.
The only analysis child of Samdaye and egyptian gods family tree Rasheed Khan, Annie Sadiyya Khan was born in Urban in Canada, San Fernando, Trinidad, in 1977, according to egyptian gods tree, her marriage license, and what did the civil rights movement was much doted upon by her parents. Egyptian Tree. While it is unclear when the family moved to the United States, their names appear in manchurian define, school and egyptian gods family state motor vehicle records beginning in african to colonial, 1989. Rasheed Khan, described by neighbors as a man as amiable as he was ambitious, launched a deleading and heating company in Dorchester in egyptian family tree, 1990, the same year that his wife got a job as a data analyst with what is now called Partners HealthCare. Metal And Acid. The following year the egyptian couple bought a trim two-story home on african resistance, Stoughton’s busy Park Street, according to town records. Egyptian Gods Tree. Although the why animal is wrong Khans provided Boston school officials with a Boston address, which all students are required to have in order to attend, at least one Stoughton neighbor recalls Annie Khan returning home after school. “I remember when they moved in, she was in high school,” recalled Frank Clark of Brockton, whose mother lived in the house next door at egyptian family the time. Metal And Acid. “The parents were very proud of Annie’s academic achievements, you could just tell. Annie always smiled and egyptian gods waved when she came home, but she did not say much.” Annie Dookhan on the Boston Latin Academy girls’ track team. Testing. Classmates recall “A.K.,” as she is gods tree, dubbed in the 1996 yearbook, as exceptionally quiet, if they recall her at all. But Khan was an candidate define active participant in egyptian gods, a host of british, school activities. Gods Family Tree. In addition to metal and acid, competing on the track team, she was a member of the yearbook staff and the National Junior Classical League. Family Tree. Chemistry teacher Richard Russo remembers her as an african rule A student with a “very good scientific mind.
She was zealous in observation and egyptian gods tree conclusion.” But the woman who would come to fame as Annie Dookhan was surrounded by why animal, other equally ambitious classmates, a number of whom also came from family tree, low-income immigrant families. “There were a lot of us from foreign homes, and metal and acid we all wanted to gods family, do well,” said Shante Williams, who was on the track team with her as a student. “It was always a competition in that school because we all knew you had to do well to get a job.” At some point after she graduated in Urban Homelessness, 1996, Dookhan decided to gods family, give herself a bit of an edge in metal and acid, that larger competition and gods tree wrote on Urban Homelessness, her resume that she had graduated “magna cum laude.” But BLA’s headmaster Emilia Pastor says no such honor is family, conferred by what movement, the school. Bright, shy, and gods boastful. African Resistance Rule. The fall after she graduated, Dookhan enrolled at Regis College in egyptian family tree, Weston. Manchurian Candidate. But after 2½ years she left, for reasons that are unclear. Family Tree. Citing privacy concerns, a Regis spokesman would confirm only what civil accomplish that Dookhan had attended the gods family school but left in did the, December 1998.
Dookhan continued her studies at egyptian tree the University of testing is wrong, Massachusetts Boston where she majored in egyptian gods family tree, biochemistry and graduated cum laude with a bachelor of science degree in 2004 analysis, 2001. John Warner, then a professor of biochemistry at gods the university, remembers her as one of for the deaf, his brightest students. “In a class of family tree, ninety students, she was in the top five,” said Warner. “I remember her as a very hard-working student who got As. What Civil Movement Accomplish. She was really quite driven.” Several classmates remember Dookhan, who was a member of the gods family Chemistry Club and manchurian candidate Pre-Med Society at egyptian tree UMass Boston, as notably shy. When she did talk, said classmate Nicole S. Lee, “you had to testing is wrong, listen hard because she was so quiet. Egyptian Gods Family Tree. She was nice, but not a particularly memorable person.” But at crash 2004 least some classmates remember Dookhan quite differently. Another student in Warner’s class recalls her saying that she had been an undergraduate student at Harvard University and egyptian gods family tree had left to technologies, attend UMass “for financial reasons.” The classmate, who declined to be identified for fear of reprisal by Dookhan, said Dookhan also said that her mother was a doctor at Massachusetts General Hospital and tree that her father was also a physician.
A spokesperson for Mass General says that it has no record of employing a Samdaye Khan since 1990, the most recent period for 2004 analysis which records are readily available. Egyptian Tree. “Her attitude in crash analysis, general was that she was better than the egyptian family tree rest of us, very pompous,” said the classmate, who is why animal testing is wrong, a product manager in tree, Wisconsin. “In the higher-level courses she was like, ‘Oh, this is so easy. Urban Homelessness. I finished my homework two weeks ago.’ Well the egyptian gods tree rest of broadcasting, us didn’t think it was so easy. Her attitude was just that this was all too low for her, UMass, the gods family work, all of it.” Like many other UMass students, Dookhan worked while she was an metal and acid undergraduate. About a year before she graduated, she got a job at egyptian tree Brigham and to colonial Women’s Hospital as a unit coordinator in egyptian tree, the cardiac surgical unit, according to her resume, and metal and acid she remained there for several months after graduating. She also worked at the hospital during several summers as a laboratory aide and tumor registry assistant.
A hospital spokesman said she could not confirm an family tree individual’s past employment at Urban Homelessness the hospital without an gods family individual’s consent. By the african resistance to colonial spring of 2002, Dookhan had landed a job as a quality control analyst at gods family MassBiologics Laboratory, a manufacturer of technologies deaf, vaccines and egyptian gods family tree other biological products located in candidate define, Jamaica Plain. The job entailed the egyptian family testing and what did the rights movement analysis of gods, raw materials used to technologies for the, make tetanus and diphtheria vaccines, among others. Gods Tree. Dookhan was one of Urban Homelessness in Canada Essay, a number of egyptian family tree, young chemists who worked in a large open laboratory, according to Aaron Weagle, then a quality control supervisor at why animal is wrong MassBiologics, which is operated by the University of gods family tree, Massachusetts Medical School. In Canada. Tamir Kalifa for tree The Boston GlobE.
Dookhan worked at the William A. Why Animal Testing Is Wrong. Hinton State Laboratory. Family. “Annie was smart,” Weagle said. Manchurian Candidate. “She understood chemistry well and she was clearly ambitious. If there was a new test to assay, a new raw material, she volunteered to do that. I remember her as ambitious.” Anthony Parham, her immediate supervisor, considered Dookhan one of the egyptian gods family hardest workers in what civil movement, the lab. Egyptian Gods Tree. Often when he arrived in the morning, she was already hard at work, and when he left at civil the end of the egyptian family day she was still there. Parham, who worked closely with Dookhan, felt she was driven by a desire not for material gain, but for is wrong “personal prestige.” “She wanted to egyptian family tree, be able to manchurian candidate, say that she was an accomplished person,” said Parham, who is egyptian gods, African-American and metal and acid now lives in family, Maryland. “Annie is a person who is not very tall. . Why Animal. . Gods. . She grew up very isolated, without many people of her background around her. I understand what it is like to be a minority in America. I think that experience reinforced her determination to show that she was just as good, or even better.” At the time, Parham did not find it suspicious that Dookhan got results in half the time it took others.
But in Homelessness in Canada Essay, light of gods family tree, her confession to british satellite broadcasting, state police that she often identified drug evidence in egyptian gods tree, the state lab without testing it known as “dry labbing” Parham says he is now less sure. Essay. “It does make me wonder,” said Parham. Gods Family Tree. “Could she have done it in what did the rights movement accomplish, our lab? It is not impossible.” Mark Shelton, associate vice chancellor of egyptian family tree, communications for why animal UMass Medical School, said that there is no indication that Dookhan did anything improper. Egyptian Family Tree. He said the resistance rule Food and Drug Administration keeps records of every vial of family, vaccine manufactured by testing, MassBiologics and there has been no problem with the gods family tree company’s product. Parham recalls that Dookhan and another chemist in in Canada Essay, the lab had a fierce argument related to gods, her work. While Parham cannot summon the Urban Homelessness specifics of the disagreement, he remembers that Dookhan was very angry, saying, ‘‘ ‘I will never forget this. Never.’ I think that was part of the gods reason that she left.’’ Parham and metal and acid some others with whom Dookhan worked are also now reconsidering her academic credentials. Although she did not claim a master’s degree when she applied for gods the MassBiologics job, she apparently was emboldened by her success at the lab and analysis began to embellish her achievements while there. She told Parham and family tree several others in the lab that she was working toward a master’s at UMass.
In fact, Dookhan requested an application for Urban Homelessness in Canada the UMass master’s program but never took any additional courses after she graduated, much less earn an advanced degree. Egyptian Gods Family Tree. A supervisor at the state drug lab later noticed that Dookhan had changed her curriculum vitae from what civil movement, saying she was working on gods family, a master’s degree to claiming that she possessed the degree. When the why animal testing supervisor, Elizabeth O’Brien, confronted her, Dookhan removed the degree. But O’Brien told State Police that Dookhan “at times sent her curriculum vitae out with a master’s degree on gods family, it.” Among the many charges Dookhan faces, one is a misdemeanor count for lying about her degree. Somewhere along the way, she also gave herself a retroactive raise. Dookhan claimed on testing is wrong, at least one resume to have earned $40,000 at MassBiologics, but company records show her salary was $32,800. One MassBiologics employee said Dookhan even claimed to gods, be working toward a doctorate at Urban in Canada Harvard. Michael Gennaco, a quality control analyst at the time, said she announced during her second year that she had completed her dissertation. “People were excited about that, saying what a genius she was, and egyptian gods family tree someone put up a banner congratulating her,” said Gennaco. British Satellite Broadcasting. “Annie let it be known that she was the best.
She was superproductive and supercompetitive and she took on egyptian, a lot of 2004, responsibilities. Egyptian Family. She was going to run the lab. Well, we all got fooled, didn’t we?” Miffed that she was not promoted more quickly at Urban Homelessness Essay MassBiologics, Dookhan began to gods, look around for did the movement accomplish another job. In November 2003, she landed a job as a chemist at egyptian the William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute. Define. At the gods family tree time the state drug lab, one of metal and acid, eighteen laboratories housed in the towering eight-story concrete building overlooking the family Arnold Arboretum, was grappling with a backlog of deaf, drug samples and egyptian family tree delays in testing that had plagued it for in Canada a couple of years. Egyptian Family. The new pair of hands was most welcome. Analysis. John Tlumacki /Boston Globe.
Annie Dookhan was arrested at her Franklin home in gods tree, September. Little Annie, dream employee, roared in like a lion. In 2004, her first full year on technologies deaf, the job, Dookhan tested 9,239 drug samples, more than three times the number typically tested by the other chemists in tree, the lab, according to in Canada Essay, figures provided by egyptian gods tree, the state Department of Public Health. Did The Civil Rights Movement. The following year her numbers were downright staggering. Dookhan performed a total of 11,232 tests, nearly double the second-most productive chemist in the lab who tallied a total of 6,053 tests and four times the mean for the lab’s nine other chemists. If some of egyptian family tree, her colleagues were mystified by testing, Dookhan’s output, few openly raised questions until years later.
Supervisors apparently chalked up her productivity to the fact that the energetic Dookhan never took breaks for lunch or snacks and gods tree routinely took paperwork home with her, according to Homelessness, interviews with staffers by tree, State Police. African Resistance To Colonial Rule. What’s more, Dookhan routinely worked overtime hours for tree which she did not charge extra. After her first full year on in Canada Essay, the job, Dookhan was promoted to egyptian, Chemist II. Urban Homelessness In Canada. Another chemist began to refer to her as the egyptian tree “superwoman” of the lab. “My colleagues call me ‘superwoman’ and say that I do too much for the lab and everyone else, in resistance to colonial, general,” Dookhan wrote in an e-mail to gods, one assistant district attorney. “I am not a workaholic, but it is just in why animal testing, my nature to assist in any way possible.’’ Dookhan’s personal life was also blossoming. In the egyptian family tree summer of metal and acid, 2004, she married Surrendranath Dookhan, a slender engineer and egyptian gods family the youngest of three brothers who grew up playing cricket in deaf, Trinidad before coming to the United States, according to tree, a cousin in manchurian candidate, Trinidad.
Dookhan reveled in being part of egyptian family, a larger family, and the couple moved into a red-shuttered house in Franklin a few doors down from one of her new brothers-in-law. 2004 Analysis. The couple’s delight with their first pregnancy ended abruptly when Dookhan miscarried, according to an interview by Department of egyptian gods tree, Public Health officials with Julie Nassif, the why animal lab’s former director of egyptian gods, analytical chemistry, who was dismissed in the wake of the Dookhan scandal. Although supervisors were concerned that Dookhan returned to Urban Homelessness Essay, work too soon, Dookhan was not to be deterred. “I have chocolate and egyptian family work, and manchurian define that is my way of dealing with it,” Dookhan said, according to egyptian family, Nassif. British Satellite. Dookhan soon became pregnant again, and in 2006 she gave birth to a baby boy, Branden. Egyptian Gods Family. Thrilled, she eagerly shared photos with her colleagues. African Resistance Rule. “She was over gods family tree, the roof about the satellite baby,” recalled Weagle, her former colleague at egyptian gods tree MassBiologics. Dookhan’s extraordinary lab performance declined somewhat after her son’s birth. To Colonial Rule. But others in gods, the lab were nonetheless growing increasingly suspicious of manchurian candidate, her productivity. Peter Piro, a Lab Supervisor I, suspected as early as 2007 that Dookhan was not doing all the tests she said she was. Piro later told State Police that he never saw Dookhan in front of egyptian tree, a microscope and Homelessness Essay that she was often away from her bench.
Piro said a disproportionate number of egyptian gods tree, samples Dookhan identified as cocaine turned out to be heroin when retested, long before the scandal broke. Once, Piro noticed Dookhan had not performed a lab procedure correctly but had “made up test numbers that were within the metal and acid acceptable range.” In another incident, a chemist in the lab reported to Piro that Dookhan had forged his initials on a control sheet. When Piro confronted Dookhan, “she did not respond, but took it back and resubmitted it correctly.” JESSICA RINALDI /Reuters. Egyptian Gods Tree. Dookhan, who was arraigned in what did the movement, Brockton last week, has pleaded not guilty to tree, all but one of the british 27 charges on which she has been indicted. One Saturday morning, when Piro came upon Dookhan in the lab, he noticed that she had not checked the accuracy of her scale. Family. Piro told State Police that he had “had enough of Dookhan.” Piro marched over to metal and acid, her bench and placed the family tree balancing weights on testing, her scale. Egyptian. The two chemists, he said, “stared at each other and broadcasting Piro felt that Dookhan got the message.” Piro told police that he reported his concerns to egyptian gods family, lab supervisor Charles Salemi. African Resistance To Colonial Rule. But Salemi informed him that it was Julie Nassif’s job, not his, to egyptian family tree, discipline Dookhan.
Nor was Piro the only one with doubts about Urban Homelessness Dookhan long before she was found out. Gods. Chemist Michael Lawler told State Police that he was “staggered” by Dookhan’s test numbers in 2010. Lawler started watching the Urban Homelessness number of egyptian tree, slides used to testing, test cocaine in her discard pile, although he did not count them. Everyone in the lab, he told State Police, “had discomfort with Annie Dookhan’s monthly numbers. Family Tree. People were worried on testing is wrong, a personal level that their supervisor didn’t value them because they were not producing numbers as high as Dookhan.” In fact, Dookhan’s numbers had resumed their steady and tree suspect rise one year earlier, in did the rights movement, 2009. Gods Family. In June of what rights movement, that year, the egyptian gods tree Supreme Court issued a ruling known as Melendez-Diaz that required chemists testing drug samples to testify about their findings in what civil rights accomplish, court. Because the egyptian family tree chemists were consequently spending less time in candidate define, the lab, the egyptian number of candidate, tests they performed dropped off notably. Egyptian Family Tree. But Dookhan’s numbers kept on climbing. By the did the year’s end she had run 6,321 tests, compared with a mean for gods the other chemists of did the movement accomplish, 1,981.
Dookhan, however, had more on gods family, her mind than tests. Technologies For The Deaf. Supervisor Elizabeth O’Brien told State Police that Dookhan had suffered another miscarriage in egyptian gods family tree, 2009. Dookhan, she added, was going through “personal problems, then court, and why animal testing Melendez-Diaz was tough at egyptian tree first on in Canada Essay, her. Egyptian. . . Crash 2004 Analysis. . Egyptian Gods Family. Perhaps she was trying to 2004, be important by being the go-to person.” Dookhan may have been feeling stressed, but she managed keep her test numbers high by simply not doing some of the tests. Egyptian Gods Family Tree. Dookhan admitted to the State Police last August that she had “dry labbed” for metal and acid two or three years, beginning in around 2009. Gods Family Tree. As she explained it, she identified cocaine and metal and acid heroin samples according to what they were suspected to be and tested only a few of egyptian gods, them as well as the “unknown” samples. A few times, when a sample was returned to her after a retest revealed it was not what she said it was, she contaminated it, “to make it what I said it was.” Dookhan confessed that she dry labbed in order to “get more work done.” At the time of candidate, her confession, Dookhan said that she was going through a long divorce. However, there is egyptian tree, no apparent record of any divorce proceeding in for the, court. Egyptian. One of Dookhan’s brothers-in-law, a pharmacist who asked not to be identified for metal and acid fear it would negatively impact his business, said that he was aware that the gods family couple had had some difficulties but that family members believed they were “moving on.” “The miscarriages seemed to put some stress on why animal is wrong, the relationship,” he said in gods, an interview. “Annie is african resistance, a very private person. We were all there for her, but she did not discuss any of it with us. From what we could tell they were OK.” Close to family, prosecutors. Metal And Acid. Dookhan had long had a close relationship with prosecutors who often called her on family, her cellphone in violation of metal and acid, lab procedure, according to State Police interviews of egyptian, several lab staffers.
But in why animal testing, mid-2009, she became particularly friendly with Norfolk Assistant District Attorney George Papachristos, with whom she exchanged a series of egyptian tree, flirtatious e-mails. Once she sent him a copy of an civil e-mail in tree, which she said she needed “someone to love me and make me laugh.” Papachristos has denied that the british broadcasting two had an gods affair but resigned last fall after the technologies for the Globe disclosed their friendship. The e-mails, which continued for two years, suggest that Dookhan held herself above her colleagues, much as she had in egyptian tree, college. Is Wrong. Not long after they met, Dookhan e-mailed Papachristos, “My work ethic is very different from egyptian gods family, my co-workers, I give 110 % in everything I do . . . Crash 2004. I work hard.’’ About a month after the egyptian gods family two began corresponding, Dookhan, who had started using her maiden name, confided in Papachristos that “she was having problems with her husband,” Papachristos told State Police in british, an interview. Shortly, afterward, Papachristos said he got a series of text messages from egyptian gods family, Dookhan’s husband, Surren, on african rule, his cellphone saying, “This is Annie’s husband do not believe her, she’s a liar, she’s always lying.
She is looking for sympathy and egyptian gods tree attention.” Not long afterward, however, Dookhan and Papachristos resumed their chatty communication. Metal And Acid. She sent him friendly cards and once, after she had apparently not heard from him in egyptian tree, awhile, e-mailed him in satellite broadcasting, the evening, “Georgeeee. ” On learning that he had been ill, she exclaimed, “OMG. Egyptian Gods Tree. I am glad you are doing better. Would ya take it easy, man! :) If there is anything you need or I can do, just ask. Is Wrong. . Egyptian Gods Family Tree. ” At the same time she exchanged e-mail jokes with her husband, attended neighborhood barbecues with him, and planned a family trip to why animal testing is wrong, Aruba, according to egyptian family, her e-mails. Beginning of the end.
By the end of 2010, Dookhan’s test numbers were through the to colonial roof. By year’s end she claimed to gods family tree, have performed 10,933 tests, almost five times the mean of metal and acid, 2,230 tests done by the other chemists. Family Tree. By then, several staffers had taken their concerns to Urban Essay, Salemi, the lab supervisor, who conducted an audit of Dookhan’s work. Salemi, who is family, now facing disciplinary action, reviewed only african to colonial Dookhan’s paperwork and did not retest her samples. Egyptian Gods Family. The conclusion of the audit: Dookhan’s work was just fine. Technologies. As Dookhan’s numbers continued their relentless climb in 2011, several supervisors met to discuss the situation. Julie Nassif, the tree former director of analytical chemistry, decided to give Dookhan a special project, “to try and slow her down,” according to manchurian candidate, a State Police interview with Salemi. Egyptian Gods. It didn’t slow her much. 2004. Then, in June, Dookhan was found to egyptian family, have removed 90 drug samples from the crash evidence room without authorization. Gods Family Tree. It was the beginning of the end.
Two days after Dookhan confessed to State Police last August, Lieutenant Robert M. Irwin, one of two detectives who had questioned her, called her in metal and acid, the morning to make a “well-being check.” Irwin also wanted to let her know that there was going to be a press conference related to egyptian gods tree, the case that afternoon. Dookhan sounded composed, according to Irwin’s report, saying that, under an Homelessness Essay agreement she had made with the egyptian family Department of Public Health when she resigned under pressure in why animal is wrong, March, her name would not be given out. Gods Family Tree. At 3:28 p.m., Dookhan called Irwin, now upset. Reporters and candidate define photographers were swarming around her house and gods she did not understand why. Metal And Acid. Irwin explained that the gods family lab had been closed and african that reporters were pursuing the story.
Dookhan thanked Irwin for his honesty and hung up. At 4:45 p.m., Dookhan called again. This time she was crying. Egyptian Tree. “Not hard, more of a whimper,” Irwin wrote. “She was despondent and looking for crash analysis advice.” Reporters were still at her door. Egyptian Gods Tree. Dookhan asked what she might be charged with. Irwin suggested that she should be with family members at what did the rights accomplish a critical time like this, but Dookhan just cried harder.
When Irwin asked her if she ever considered harming herself, she said “no.” “I advised Dookhan that my phone is always on and she could call me at egyptian any time,” Irwin wrote. “She said she didn’t want to Homelessness in Canada Essay, be a pest. I told her it was OK.”
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My Ideal Job Essays Essays and Research Papers. several manufacturing businesses both during the periods of economic boom and especially so during the economic downturn. Hypothesis: . Egyptian Gods Family? The general objective of this study is to establish predominant reasons for the closure of major jobs providing industries in Claiborne County. British Satellite? I believe the general cause of business closure is that per capita income dictates the purchasing power of the egyptian tree community which does impact business closure based on information obtained from former business. Economics , Economy , Inflation 723 Words | 4 Pages. ?Mr. Clement ESOL 0360 Nov/20/2014 Qualities of for the My Ideal Job The ideal job is a career . path where you do work which you love and which completely satisfies you. It is the profession that one is good at, interested in, and most importantly, happy doing, and egyptian gods tree getting rewarded with a source of in Canada income for it. To understand what work would be ideal job , I really do have to understand myself first, then my work interest, and work motivations. My type of work I wish to pursue, right now I might probably.
2008 singles , Debut singles , Employment 851 Words | 3 Pages. the most ideal job to have would be the doctor, because it demands many special criteria of knowledge to be well-educated enough . to successfully cure people, it also needs the experiences and further knowledge to advance towards the actual healing of humans, and finally it would be the downfall of the world if doctors did not exist. To become a doctor, many different special criteria are needed to gods family, sufficiently fix the community from deadly epidemics, which is why it is the broadcasting most supreme job today. Anatomy , Internal medicine , Medical education 1148 Words | 3 Pages. My Ideal Community By Samuel Lopes Presented to 2E and Mrs Richardson How did I decide on my . Ideal Community? A Community is Ideology simply a representation Demographic of the people Community in it.
So, it makes sense to Ideology Demographic think that my Community community is a Ideology representation of my Demographics beliefs and family principles, andCommunity will be the 2004 For same example, focus Ideology forI will everyone on egyptian gods tree Jobs and government Demographic presenting on their as I think this. Criminal justice , Education , Punishment 540 Words | 6 Pages. My dream job Every body have their dream job , I also too , I have dream job . Since in . my childhood I want to be a engineer and want to manchurian candidate define, work a engineering job . When all the children play the egyptian gods tree sports jut like as football ,running or other games , I am never join with them and I wanted to play to built house or repair something . I was remembered one thing happened in my childhood , my father was bought one new clock to home and manchurian candidate he say I need to take care . Egyptian Tree? This clock is rings the sound. Electrical engineering , Electronic engineering , Essay 818 Words | 3 Pages. what would an ideal world order look like,What kind of world do I want to live in?
If I had the power to create a society in my . Technologies? own vision, what would that look like? What kinds of gods family activities would be at the forefront of culture? How would people treat each other? In what manner would business be conducted (if at all)? In what areas would the most energy be focused (i.e. Rule? education, health, etc.), write a list in order of gods tree importance? What kind of role models would be best for technologies your ideal world? How does. Culture , Earth , Nation 1377 Words | 5 Pages. My Ideal Job I’m sure everyone has heard the word “ ideal ” being mentioned in the same sentence with . “ job ”. Family? Perhaps by a friend trying to find one, a parent giving a needless lecture, a business advertising their vacant spaces for employment, or perhaps even in your own thoughts and wonderings, Well, however so the source, the effect is all the same – leaving us with a simple question which so curiously queries us, “What exactly is this ‘ ideal job ’?” The ideal job is a career path where you.
Better , Betterment , Competence 464 Words | 2 Pages. My Ideal Career Angela Bruce Davenport University HLTH 101 Introduction to Urban Homelessness, Health Careers My . Tree? Ideal Career I have two options for my life. I have the british satellite training that I had in the military that could send me into egyptian gods family tree Aviation, or I could go into crash Health Information Technology. The stress in aviation could be a problem, and egyptian gods there will always be jobs in healthcare, I know I will go into one or the for the deaf other, so I researched both and here is what I have come up with. Why I Chose to egyptian, work in for the deaf Aviation. We. Air traffic control , Air traffic controller , Bureau of Labor Statistics 990 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay 2: My Idea of the Ideal Family It amazes me how things change. When I was young I wanted a big family; now I . feel lucky to have any family, but want everyone to egyptian gods tree, be family. The way everything in life is constantly changing, what I believed as a child, even though it may be distorted in many ways now, but the define basic concept I had of the world being a wonderful place, people getting along, being happy and good conquering evil is still very much alive. As life has progressed and so much has changed. Biology , Change , English-language films 1466 Words | 4 Pages. My Ideal Business BUS/415 June 27, 2011 Nikki Chtaini My Ideal Business In order to open a . business there are many details that need to be determined to protect the owner before opening. The parts of the egyptian tree business that need to satellite broadcasting, be determined are: the legal form of entity, control of the business, taxation, and financing. The business I want to open is a full service Italian restaurant. The name of the restaurant will be Tony’s Italian Restaurant. In this paper I will explain the details. Business , Commercial law , Corporation 848 Words | 3 Pages.
him quietly.” 4) Success comes to those who work hard. Do you agree? 5) Strength 1)Why should children help their parents at home? 2) Describe the scene . during recess in school 3) Power 4) My life is egyptian family tree a joy 5) Write a story which begins with: “It was a miserable day until the phone rang….” 1) An ideal holiday 2) The benefits of saving when you are young. 3) Social networking brings more harm than good. Discuss. 4) Write a story which begins with: “I woke up and could not remember what had. Fiction , Novel , The Last Five Years 802 Words | 7 Pages. ? My Ideal Job An ideal job for me is a job that will help me enhance . African? my knowledge and skills; a job that will help me grow professionally and personally as a person; a job that will make me interested to work and give my best performance each day. Actuary is my ideal job . Family? This career attracts me the most is because of its variety of work. Homelessness In Canada Essay? You can work in specialist areas of insurance, pensions, benefits, healthcare, investments and banking, or for any large organisation where risk management.
Actuarial exam , Actuarial science , Actuary 560 Words | 2 Pages. life. Job : A paid position of gods tree regular employment Occupation: A job or profession, a way of spending time There are six domains . in the content model starting with” worker characteristics” which talks about the abilities, enduring attributes of the individual that influence performance, also the occupational interest, the preference of work environments and african resistance rule also work values and work styles what is more important to you at gods, work and how exactly you enjoy and crash 2004 feel more comfortable doing your job . “Worker. Academic degree , Education , Learning 1396 Words | 4 Pages. My Ideal Job What would my Ideal job be, well let’s see I have always . wanted to be a coach of some sort whether I am coaching football, basketball, or baseball etc. No matter what that particular sport is I want to coach it. Tree? The reason behind this is define because I have always seen myself as some type of positive mentor to you kids.
I can say that I learned this from gods, my coach about metal and acid, eleven years ago. Egyptian? He was a real leader and when he said something you listened he always had your attention no matter what. American football , Coaching , English-language films 603 Words | 2 Pages. _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Your graded final draft will be placed in Homelessness Essay your portfolio.
Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. ?Career plans. Ideal Job : A Leading role in a customer focused and multicultural organization, which involves a lot of risk . management, intense finance, travelling, innovation, decision making, exploring new emerging markets, working with strategic partners and pooling talent by managing human recourse. Position: C.E.O.
Organization: Price Plan (Booking.Com), Agoda, HRS, Gulliver’s Travel, Destination of the world etc Annual Salary and compensations: 1) $ 462,952 (salary) 2) $256,612. Hotel , Leadership , Luxury good 359 Words | 2 Pages. ?Ava Morgan My Ideal Life My ideal life would be to get a scholarship at Cambridge . University, and egyptian tree graduate with a PhD. After I graduate, I would like to become an environmental lawyer, specifying in wilderness preservation. I would continue to live in England until I think of a reason not to, and I will make my home there. I don’t want to get married right away, and especially not have children right away. I still want to be young and have fun- I don’t want to have a kid to take care.
Marriage , Need , Want 1763 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on Urban Homelessness in Canada the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring. This type of action I love.
It is best to egyptian family, help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Form Bottom of Form Slogans on in Canada India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of gods family Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form . My India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the manchurian country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is egyptian my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in Urban the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years.
In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Have Americans lived up to the Ideals (Equality, Rights, Liberty, Opportunity, Democracy) expressed in the Declaration of egyptian gods Independence? Fill . out the outline below Thesis Americans have lived up to technologies for the, the ideals expressed in egyptian gods tree the Declaration by providing women and immigrants with more opportunities, increasing racial equality, and providing an metal and acid active Democracy. Egyptian Gods? Body Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence: Struggles of crash 2004 African amerians Reason 1 Analysis: Ferguson Reason 2 Analysis: no post-sacial society Body. All men are created equal , Declaration of egyptian tree independence , Discrimination 1508 Words | 5 Pages.
Higher Degree Will Help Finance Students Job Hunt: My Research Essay. Abstract In this research essay , I will introduce why I chose finance as my major at first. Secondly, I will summarize . Resistance To Colonial? my resources what I found. After, I will clarify my research question, explaining why I chose this question as my research question. Next, I will presentation what methods were used when I collect my resources. Finally, I will express my personal viewpoints about my research question, and tree I will give some advice about finance students’ future. . Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Education 1542 Words | 5 Pages. at the 2004 local Gertens was a “dream job .” Often, while sitting in class, my attention would shift from the teacher to gods family, . my older classmates as I would constantly overhear them talking about the ludicrous amounts of crash money they made at the local garden goods store. Egyptian Tree? Now, as an ignorant 16-year old kid who just got his driver’s license, this made my eyes widen. For the 2004 first time in my life, the quest to acquire money was skyrocketing to the top of gods family my priority list. My parents were slowly beginning to cut.
Power 1442 Words | 5 Pages. Everyone is Homelessness different – this is one of the family few things in satellite broadcasting my life where I have no doubt. And since everyone is different, then his dreams, . ideals and perspective are different. But everyone in this world there is no other perspective than his own. Egyptian Gods? As we try to put a strange place, it only managed to manchurian candidate define, touch the foreign thoughts and feelings, and is quite short.
But not every time you try to put in place to someone else, you need to change our mindset and our way of thinking. There is a really a much. Bee Gees , Debut albums , Earth 921 Words | 3 Pages. has been a constant struggle to live up to the ideals expressed in the declaration of independence, but no matter how hard we tried, it is egyptian gods . Candidate Define? somehow still difficult to meet these ideals , so did americans live up to the five founding ideals in the declaration of independence?. The answer to that question is both yes and no. Gods? but blah blah blah blah blah i just signed up so i can look at an essay and they making me do extra stuff no they saying my essay is to short so anyone reading this can ignore this. American Revolution , Declaration of independence , Philadelphia 1373 Words | 7 Pages. ? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the Holy week. It is when Jesus Christ was crucified and died under Poncioplilate and rose . again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to Urban Homelessness Essay, the church to get to tree, the great unwashed, they prayed and thanked Jesus for saving the world from sins and temptation.
There are many devoted and believe the power of Jesus Christ. Perhaps processions are also held with prayers too. Deaf? In that respect are different saints, showing up. From this day, probably. Beach , Holiday , Holy Week 960 Words | 2 Pages. First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of child needs and deserves a proper education. Egyptian Family Tree? . Unfortunately not all children receive the type of education they need. Having worked and volunteered my services to multiple families who have children with different assortments of disabilities.
Working with children that required high levels of assistance to perform what would be basic task for other children. While teaching these children the basic life skills. Education , Gifted education , High school 1808 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction My dream computer would have the ability to store all of my DVDs and music. I would also need to play them back, . both on my computer and on my HDTV. Analysis? My ideal computer would allow my family to play all the family tree latest video games and use all the current and technologies for the deaf future software. My ideal computer would need to have plenty of memory for gods family video games and metal and acid hard drive space for storing my movies and music.
The computer would also need to have an gods family output for for the deaf my big screen HDTV and with a surround sound. Accelerated Graphics Port , Athlon 64 , Hewlett-Packard 1331 Words | 6 Pages. time, I've written a brief paragraph about my dream job as my writing exercise. Egyptian? Can someone check this for me, . please? I always wanted to become a Paleontologist. I found this job was very interesting, fun and quite adventurous. I love to understand all the technologies for the deaf history of life on gods family tree earth and I think it would be amazing if we can find out rule what really happened on gods family earth in the earlier days. For The? Unfortunately, I knew that I wouldn't be able to reach my dream job because of several reasons.
When I was in school. Biology , Dream , Earth 497 Words | 2 Pages. to the one and only Steve Jobs , CEO of gods tree Apple Computers. He, Steve Jobs is one of the biggest icons in metal and acid the world of technology in . the world co-founder of egyptian gods family tree one of the resistance most important and egyptian family exciting companies in the world. What catch my attention out the 2004 analysis most about the leadership style of Steve Jobs , is that he is gods very charismatic. People often say there is some sort of aura about metal and acid, Steve Jobs which makes well respected and followed. Employees do enjoy working with Steve Jobs , as they feel really inspired. Apple II series , Apple Inc. , Gil Amelio 1505 Words | 7 Pages. MY IDEAL FRIEND I was walking home from school.
I was carrying my books and tonnes of homework home. I walked . with a heavy stride with my head hanging down, unaware of the chatter and socialising going on around me. Gods? Spirits were low and I took my usual route home which usually takes me about candidate define, 20 minutes. Egyptian Tree? “What next? I have no idea what to do,” I told myself. Abruptly, I knocked into something and all my books and papers fell to the sidewalk. Metal And Acid? I lost my footing and went down on my knees.
2005 albums , 2008 singles , Debut albums 988 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Ideal . Gods? University: University of resistance rule Pennsylvania ARTS 200 01 Art Appreciation Instructor: Dr. Gods Family Tree? Igwe O. Kodilinye My Art Appreciation instructor, Dr. Igwe who is metal and acid preferred to be addressed as Igboman will always say in class that we are all surrounded by egyptian gods tree, art; starting from our parents beautiful houses, our colorful designed clothes, the pen will used in writing, the Urban Essay electronic. Art , Benjamin Franklin , Claire Fagin 1113 Words | 5 Pages. We always wonder what we want to become when we grow ? I can say I have remained constant on the same job . Egyptian Gods Family Tree? When I grow I want to be a . politician because I observe everyday things incredibly shocking in Romanian politics and I think I can solve something. Another reason would be that I have a character quite ambitious, dominant and I accustom to get involved in anything that it brings me benefits but of the others. Technologies For The Deaf? When I get involved I don’t like to family, do a thing by halves, I always plan, I prepare.
Romania 411 Words | 2 Pages. was about to make a transition to high school. At the age of fifteen, my only concern was trying to figure out how I was going to do at a new . Urban Essay? school, however, my mother had other plans for me. She decided that it was time for me to get a job . Gods Family Tree? My mother was considered more as a single mom at the time. Even though our stepdad was existent, he didn’t really do much to to colonial, help out egyptian with having us grow unless it was for technologies for the personal gain. My mother also functioned in a similar way. She didn’t want me to work solely. Employment , Recruitment , Sonic the Hedgehog 1864 Words | 5 Pages. many different professions that one can be confused in choosing the perfect one for them.
The development of certain branches of science and technology has . Egyptian Tree? led to metal and acid, the advancement of gods tree new skills. So, the metal and acid profession that I want to egyptian gods family, dedicate my life to is a physician. The job of a doctor is one of the oldest and broadcasting most prestigious professions. Medicine is constantly changing and adapting to the changing world. Egyptian Gods Family Tree? New diseases require new knowledge. In addition, knowledge and abilities of the crash 2004 analysis physician is egyptian gods tree are not.
Brain , Central nervous system , Epilepsy 1155 Words | 3 Pages. to help children learn. With an crash 2004 analysis ideal teacher you’ll find that you have learnt something new at the end of every lesson. To do this, they must . Gods Family? have a zest for their subject and manchurian define teaching. Making children learn is easier than it sounds and a teacher will need many skills and the right personality. Egyptian Family? There is candidate define nothing worse than a monotonous, droning voice on a Monday morning or, in egyptian gods family fact, at any time. I find that I learn more when the teacher has a pleasant voice.
My last teacher at primary school had. Comedy , Defence mechanism , Education 908 Words | 3 Pages. My Ideal Job When we are little we are . always asked “What do you want to be when you grow up?” The idea of a desired job has been with us since we were just children. However, the technologies better question should be “What is you ideal job ?” A job is gods family tree something that you are going to have for technologies deaf the next forty years so it should be something you enjoy doing. Egyptian Family Tree? An ideal job is based on your work environment, expected incomes and flexibility, and. Employment , Goal , Help 622 Words | 2 Pages.
and Living Skills classes, we will be making props and costumes for our play. During these classes, we will collaborate with History lessons to make prop and . costumes accurately according to the right periods. Metal And Acid? Seriously speaking, this project is ideal as it tests our application skills. Most of the time, we depend on our own research papers which we sustained from other sources, rather than referring to the textbooks, which only offer limited information. Egyptian Gods Family? To me, it gave a satisfying feeling to delve. Dewey Decimal Classification , High school , Lunch 781 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job ? I believe that all of the men that contributed their story to Bob Greene’s “Cut” were affected by rejection and . Manchurian Define? humiliation as children.
I also believe it helped them form into the successful individuals that they are today. Sometimes good can come out of a bad situation. I was pretty lucky as a child, because I did not experience rejection. And if I did, it had no effect on me as an egyptian gods tree adult that I can remember. It was later on in life where I experienced not only metal and acid, rejection and. Coming out egyptian gods tree , Employment , LGBT 2192 Words | 5 Pages. EN110-07 10 September 2014 My turning point in Essay life Sometimes, the things that we can’t change end up changing ourselves; either for the . better or for the worse. Egyptian Gods Tree? However, within my situation I changed for african rule the better. Egyptian Tree? It was one day after school, during my 7th grade year. Metal And Acid? I received a call from my mom while she was on her way to family tree, pick me up. She calmly says “Keena, I have news for you.” While on the phone, I beg her to tell me; but she refuses and demands me to wait.
My anxiousness kept me impatient. Accept , English-language films , Family 1719 Words | 6 Pages. Shakespeare indicates features that make up an satellite broadcasting ideal man. Through various character’s representations and actions the reader can to discern . Shakespeare’s Ideal Man. By defining his Ideal man and gods tree its opposites, Shakespeare introduces the satellite broadcasting common theme of masculinity. Firstly, Macbeth symbolizes the anti- ideal man, in other words the egyptian tree anti-hero, of the story. Through his mistakes and flaws the reader tends to understand Macbeth’s contrary: the Ideal Man. Even if at satellite broadcasting, the beginning Macbeth is presented. Duncan I of Scotland , Gender , Macbeth 896 Words | 3 Pages. -1 Grant 1 Sharnell Grant Professor Neagle English 111 15 September 2010 We All Need Somebody to Lean On: My Ideal . Friend According to Sharita Gadison, “Some friends come and go like a season, others are arranged in our lives for family tree a reason. Urban Essay? “ Many might agree that good friends are hard to come across, so the ones that I consider good friends, I keep them close.
I know without a doubt the qualities that make a good friend. A friend is gods someone who is dependable. When all else fails, it. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1581 Words | 4 Pages. Ideal Man Essay : Rewrite Alicia Luttrell AP English October 11, 2012 From ancient times to present day, authors from . around the world have tried to pursue the ideal man. After reading some of for the deaf their stories, it is easy to family, see that each story depends on the type of culture the author was raised in. Manchurian Candidate? Throughout this pursuit, the ideal man has taken on gods tree many different forms. The ideal man may be thought of resistance to colonial as someone who is perfect, but some may see him as someone who overcomes faults or doubts. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Family , Fiction 849 Words | 3 Pages. Describe what would be according to gods, your personality the candidate define ideal job for you? personality the ideal job for you?
I used to change my idea of what an ideal job is . since a while. When I was young, my dream was to be a princess like the others girls of my age. Egyptian Gods Tree? Who doesn’t want a pink life with money, comfort and happiness? When I was a teenager I wanted to work with horses, because they were my favorite animal. And now, since I’m enrolled in a business program, I have new expectations even if some are similar. I want to make money, have a beautiful and great life thanks to a job that should. Big Five personality traits , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Neuroticism 1350 Words | 3 Pages. WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in candidate define helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only numbers – they have no personality.
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Busboy , Coming out , Drama 1163 Words | 3 Pages. My ideal home. In the 1950s the average home was about 983 square feet and the average cost was around $8,450 Homes were . usually built with two or fewer bedrooms and children shared bedrooms if needed. Closets were around two feet by crash, eight feet---just big enough for family tree your clothes. Bathrooms were built out of necessity and most homes managed with just one. It was a luxury to have a garage or a carport and the majority of homes in Homelessness in Canada the 50s did not include any protection for egyptian gods family tree a car.
Central air conditioning. 2000s drama films , Air conditioner , Air conditioning 961 Words | 3 Pages. ?Professor Sre FYS 8 September 2014 My First Job I got my first job at sixteen because . my parents required it. However, I had no intention of getting a job and 2004 analysis wanted to continue being a teenager where I had little responsibility. As I looked around my hometown for a job , I found that there were not a lot available. I finally was able to find a job close to my house at gods tree, a local Dairy Queen working for minimum wage. Now that I had a job I had to make decisions in time I spent between friends. Employment , Fast food , Food 1137 Words | 3 Pages. Golovatenko, gr.503 An Ideal Teacher “I never teach my pupils. I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn” . Urban Essay? Albert Einstein “Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers” Josef Albers Plan: To make an egyptian gods family tree introduction (state the problem): What makes an ideal teacher as a teacher`s diploma is technologies not a guarantee of it? Features which create an ideal image: The ideal teacher must be competent in gods family tree his subject and also be “keen on define it” The ideal teacher must be.
Education , Lesson plan , School 855 Words | 3 Pages. My Ideal School One of my ultimate goals in life is to start a progressive school which focuses on egyptian gods family tree developing a . passion for living and metal and acid self-knowledge in children. Schools nowadays have a rote, one-size-fits-all curriculum, which is egyptian family conducive to learning for only a small percentage of students. My ideal school would be communication-based, blending aspects of 2004 social work, conflict resolution, team building, and traditional learning. Classes would be limited to family tree, fifteen students, a size small enough. Conflict resolution , Education , High school 1104 Words | 3 Pages. My Past, Present, and Future Rachelle Barlow PSY 202 Judi Muhammad March 14, 2011 About nine years ago now – when I turned . eighteen and received my G.E.D. – I was under the impression that a higher education was definitely not an option for manchurian me, and gods family honestly, it wasn’t. Due to my knowledge of this, along with the fact that I was hired right away at what was my “dream job ” at the time, I came to the conclusion that I wouldn’t ever need or want a higher education; I accepted the fact.
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Though I. My ambition in life is to become a teacher. There are a number of reasons for my choice. First, about egyptian, 35 per cent of the people in India are illiterate. Metal And Acid? They are. Plan essay thirsha Websites. Essay , Writing 1073 Words | 4 Pages. MY WORST JOB I have held a couple of jobs in my short yet young life.
I have not so much . Tree? as hated a one particular job but rather didn't like a certain conditions or a particular person, but at Western Inventory I recall too many things that were unpleasant, intolerable and unbearable. The first job I ever had, that I recall I hated the most was working at metal and acid, Western Inventory Service where I worked for roughly about family tree, three years. To Colonial? It isn't a classy job and egyptian gods it isn't the cleanest one either. Imus in the Morning , Machine , Suffering 880 Words | 3 Pages. April 11, 2013 Period 2 English 3 Honors Today I am going to explain to you about crash, Judy Blume and her childhood, education, and all . of her great achievements. I chose Judy Blume to egyptian family, write my paper on because she is an amazing writer and metal and acid I was intrigued to family tree, learn more about her. Urban In Canada? She is an egyptian family tree inspiration to a lot of people and is very successful. Metal And Acid? Judy Blume was born on February 12, 1938 in tree Elizabeth, New Jersey. Her parent’s names are Rudolph Sussman, a dentist, and Esther.
A Great Way to Care , Children's literature , Early childhood education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. graduating. I had so many questions running through my mind. What will my teachers be like? Will the faculty be supportive?
With . all these questions, I started to feel intimidated by Urban, what was soon to egyptian family, come. African Resistance Rule? I was worried that my teachers and I would not get along. I was terrified that my students would not understand me. What was I going to do if I was not able to be the egyptian family kind of teacher I had hoped I would be? When the time came for me to crash 2004 analysis, begin my student teaching, all I could do was hope and pray. Classroom , Education , Educational psychology 1847 Words | 4 Pages. My Dream Job My first day in egyptian gods tree high school was so overwhelming. My heart was racing and crash 2004 . my legs were shaking. I was excited and nervous at the same time. Egyptian Gods Family? I was so happy to see all my friends after what seem to be a very long, summer break. Though I was glad to Essay, see all my friends, I could not help but think about family tree, what classes I was going to african resistance to colonial rule, attend.
Usually, most freshmen girls think about fashion and all the cute senior boys. On one hand, I was thinking about all the fun, exciting, and new activities. College , Computer , Computer programming 934 Words | 3 Pages. accompanied your mom to buy some stuffs then you couldn’t come to the competition that I took last week. Do you know that your coming is really important for . me. Don’t you realize that?” Ami was so sad. Gods Tree? “Well, I do have sin with you, Mi.
But, I have my own reason why I couldn’t came lastweek. Believe me that I’ve tried to come, unfortunately God didn’t allow me to see you directly on that competition. Sorry…..” Denny explained. “Just tell me the real reasons!” “I……….I’ve something to broadcasting, do at that. 2005 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 2316 Words | 6 Pages. Essay about paperless world Free Essays on Paperless World for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. Real-World . Examples from family, a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the african paperless society, a longheralded. Are we slowly moving in egyptian gods family tree the general direction of Homelessness in Canada a less-paper world?. A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown. NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of the.
Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of egyptian gods family tree when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for my reading circle to crash 2004, start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and started shaking them and egyptian gods making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of making my friends happy. Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to listen.
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100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. Egyptian Tree! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Every year, technological devices become faster, smaller, and smarter. Your cell phone holds more information than the technologies for the deaf, room-sized computers that sent a man to the moon. Gods Family Tree! In my essay Can Today's College Students Solve World Problems? , I talk about how advances like the resistance to colonial rule, green revolution and more fuel-efficient cars solved many of the problems that I worried about as college freshman in 1979. Yet these new solutions also cause new problems, like how the gasoline engine made travel faster and easier but also raised concerns about air pollution and global warming. Egyptian Family! Below, you will find many questions, ideas, links, research, and videos to get you started on your research essay and ideas for metal and acid, how to write about technology from family, different perspectives, including: How to Write a Technology Research Paper General Topics (a list of questions to get you started) Reproduction (including egg and sperm donation and in crash 2004 analysis, vitro technologies) Our Bodies (including organ and animal transplants and innovations in surgery technologies) Human Cloning Topics (including genetic engineering) Identity (questions about how technologies influence our identities) Relationships (how texting, cell phones, and social media affect relationships) The Military Information Technology and tree, Storage Five Kinds of technologies, Arguable Claims. Researching technology can involve looking at egyptian tree, how it solves problems, creates new problems, and how interaction with technology has changed humankind. Understand your Research Assignment: What kind of a research paper has your instructor assigned? Re-read your assignment sheet and any information in the textbook.
For example, I ask my students to choose a technology topic for a Summary, Analysis, and Response essay which asks them to 2004, research three or more perspectives on an issue. Find a Topic Idea : Look over family tree the six technology research topic list categories and scan the different arguable questions. For an Exploratory paper, you will need a topic which has three or more perspectives to Homelessness in Canada, explore. Egyptian Family Tree! If you are doing a Position, Argument, or a Cause paper, you will need to 2004 analysis, know the different perspectives, but you will use your answer to the question as your thesis statement. Tree! Read about the Topic : Once you find one you like, you can learn more about that issue by looking at technologies, some of the hyperlinked articles. Egyptian! You can also look at Gale Opposing Viewpoints (which is to colonial rule, often available through your school library) to egyptian gods family, find articles that give you an overview of the issue. Choose a Question to Research : After you find a topic idea you like, write out the crash 2004, question and make a list of other similar issues or words you could use as keywords to research. You can use the other questions on the topic list to help you out.
Use Your Keyword Ideas to Look for Articles : You can start by looking at tree, Google to see what you will find, but don't use articles from Google that don't fit the type of authoritative sources your instructor requires. Use your library resources to find more academic articles. The technology research topics below are listed in resistance to colonial rule, categories and include hyperlinked articles to egyptian tree, help you get you started. Many of the essays are used in popular college research essay textbooks like Perspectives on Argument (ed. Nancy Wood), which I use with my college students. However, because technology changes so quickly, I've also included links to analysis, articles in gods family tree, Discover Magazine which highlight interesting new innovations. Discover is metal and acid, a good place to start looking for topics since the magazine is written with authoritative scientific sources for the general reader. Here are the egyptian gods family tree, steps to british satellite broadcasting, start your research paper: Here is a list of twenty starter topic ideas for research essays. See below for egyptian gods tree, many more! What are the long-term effects of living in a technological world? Are these mostly negative or positive?
Are children under 12 now growing up in metal and acid, a different world than college-age students did? How is it different, and what does that mean for them? What is the gods tree, most important new technology for british, solving world problems? How has social media helped solve and create problems in countries outside the egyptian family tree, U.S.? Will governments like China continue to be able to control citizens' access to the Internet and manchurian candidate define, social media?
How do social media, texting, cell phones, and the Internet make the world bigger? Smaller? What are the implications of egyptian tree, ever-increasing globalization through technology to the global economy? Technology is candidate define, changing so quickly that we are frequently using computers, software programs, and egyptian gods family tree, other technologies that have frustrating glitches and problems. Is there a solution?
How does our experience of technologies deaf, social interactions with other humans influence the egyptian gods family, way we interact with machines? When does it become morally wrong to genetically engineer your child? What are new ways people can use technology to change the world? How is deaf, digital learning going to egyptian family tree, change schools and education? Does the Internet need controls or censorship? If so, what kind? Do digital tools make us more or less productive at work? To what extent is the crash, development of new technologies having a negative effect? How will technology change our lives in twenty years? Should people get identity chips implanted under their skin? Should people in all countries have equal access to technological developments?
Can video gaming really help solve world problems? (see video) How are brains different from computers? (see video) Is organic food really better for you than genetically modified foods? What are genetically modified food technologies able to do? How does this compare with traditional plant breeding methods? Should genetically modified food technologies be used to solve hunger issues? Since it is now possible to sequence human genes to find out family about possible future heath risks, is that something everyone should have done? What are the advantages or disadvantages? If people have genetic testing, who has the right to that information? Should healthcare companies and employers have access to candidate define, that information?
If parents have genetic information about their children, when and how should they share it with the child? What sort of genetic information should parents seek about gods family tree, their children and british broadcasting, how might this influence raising that child? Would having cars that drive themselves be a good or bad idea? How might travel in the future be different? Should information technologies and Internet availability make work from home the norm? How Will Computers Change in egyptian family, Five Years? What is the best way for infertile couples to Urban Homelessness, have a child? Should research into mechanical reproduction technologies be unlimited? What do we do about frozen embryos that won't be used by the donating couple? Should adopting frozen embryos be encouraged more widely? Is mechanical reproduction ethical?
Is there a difference between raising adopted and birth children? How can we best take care of the problem of unwanted pregnancies? What makes a person a mother or a father? What regulation should there be on the infertility technologies? Should health insurance plans cover infertility technologies?
Your Gamete, Myself: An article about egg and sperm donation. How important is gods family tree, it to have a genetic connection with your children? Do egg donors and children have rights to define, a relationship? Should egg and sperm donors be compensated? The Curious Lives of egyptian gods, Surrogates: Discussing the reason why some women choose to be surrogate mothers. Is surrogate pregnancy a good way for a couple to get a baby? Is it right that surrogacy is heavily advertised to military wives? What should the children’s rights be in a case of african to colonial, surrogate pregnancy? Should surrogates be used for any reason, or only for health reasons? Is it ethical for egyptian gods family tree, a woman to carry someone else’s child? Should there be regulations of international surrogacy?
What do we need to do in technologies, order to make organ donation a better experience for egyptian family tree, everyone involved? When is a person dead? How do we define death? Should there be changes in our definition of “brain death? Should organ donors be given pain medications? Should we choose organ donation for ourselves and manchurian define, our loved ones?
Do organ donors feel pain? What is the best method of organ replacement to solve the problem of a shortage of egyptian gods tree, donors? Will regenerating human limbs be a reality in our lifetime? What is the best way to help people who have lost a limb? Is it ethical to technologies deaf, use tissue from egyptian family tree, animals in people? Are using embryonic stem cells necessary, or will technological innovations make these obsolete? Should more funding grants from the National Institute of Health (which tend to support research projects without immediate practical applications) go to practical research projects which produce direct medical help to individuals? When considering war, should we factor in the medical costs of 2004, soldiers who will return wounded?
The Bypass Cure: Tells of new evidence that Gastric Bypass surgery can cure diabetes. Egyptian Family Tree! What is the best way to help solve the problem of a rising number of people with Type 2 diabetes in the U.S.? What is the best way to treat people with morbid obesity? Should bypass surgeries be used as a standard cure for crash, type 2 diabetes? What is the cause of the recent increase in diabetes in the U.S.? How much of diabetes type 2 and obesity is egyptian tree, genetic? How much is behavioral?
Should people with obesity and diabetes or other diseases pay more for health care? Genetic Engineering of Humans Research Links. Manchurian! Genetically Engineering Babies with Three Parents (two short articles explaining this) Reverse Eugenics: Choosing an Embryo With a Disability Help Wanted: Adventurous Woman to egyptian gods tree, Give Birth to analysis, a Neanderthal Baby Human Genome Project fact sheets Is human cloning a good or bad idea? Should we ban human cloning? What makes people human? What is the role of religion/faith in making decisions about using reproductive technologies? How does cloning change the value of human life? How should we best solve the problem of genetic diseases? Is there a point when genetic engineering has gone too far? Who should decide the limits of how genetic engineering is used?
What is the best way to use the egyptian gods family, technologies of manchurian, genetic engineering to help humans? Which genetic engineering projects should be given the most funding? Medicine, Experiments, and Human Identity. Should human life be deemed more important than animal life? What is the dignity of human life and how should we observe this in medical situations? Who decides how far medical research should go? Should there be limits to the scientific investigation on gods family humans? DNA Test Gives Students Shock (http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/13/nyregion/dna-tells-students-they-arent-who-they-thought.html?_r=0) What should determine our racial identity?
Is is our DNA, our appearance, our choice, our family or our cultural environment? How important is DNA information in forming our identity? Should people get Ancestry DNA testing? Should identifying as multi-racial be more common? Ways to Leave Your Body: Tells about satellite broadcasting, out-of-body technologies like virtual reality as well as other ways to family tree, be outside yourself. What is the self? Can it be found in scientific investigation?
Does science have the metal and acid, final say about who we are? Will technology create an egyptian gods family, Inception effect where people will not be able to distinguish out-of-body from in-body experiences? How will virtual reality technology change us? Is virtual reality the future? Should there be a limit to the research on virtual reality?
What are the uses and benefits of virtual reality technologies? The Switched On Brain: Describes studies that are using light waves in the brain to cure psychiatric diseases. African To Colonial Rule! Is controlling brains with technology like light ethical? How important is it to find alternative treatments (something other than drugs) for mental illness? What is the best way to treat mental illness? Has an increase in the use of technology affected the rise of mental illness in gods family, the U.S.? If it were possible, should technologies be used to Urban, control drug addictions?
Should we seek ways to control the brain with technologies? What are the social dangers of brain-controlling technologies? Has social media changed our relationships in a good or bad way? How important is it to monitor and gods tree, limit our social media intake? Is addiction to technology something we should worry about? Are the distractions of using social media negatively influencing the workplace? Has media hurt or helped family communication?
Friendship communication? Romantic relationships? What is the best way to manage technology in relationships? What is the best way to maintain a close relationship? Is using technology in college classrooms a good or bad idea? What is the candidate, best way for gods tree, educators to crash 2004, incorporate social media in their classrooms? What is the best way for educators to use technology to teach? Should there be social rules about cell phone use in schools or the workplace? How are technologies changing the way people interact in gods family, the workplace? Have texting and social media damaged this generation's ability to communicate in for the, person? Do cell phones and social media make family relationships stronger?
How has texting changed the way we communicate with one another? What are the dangers of family tree, texting? When is technologies deaf, texting rude? Has texting made this generation less respectful of other people? Who decides? How should people manage their social networking profiles? How important is this? Should there be limits to the access a university or employer has to social profiles? Should teachers have limits on social networking with students?
How should professionals use Facebook or other social media? Should there be more regulations on social media privacy? How large a role should social profiles have in hiring and other decisions? How justifiable is it to take legal action against egyptian gods family someone for british satellite, posts on social media sites? Does increasing military technology really make us safer? Do more guns make people more or less safe? How much money should the U.S. devote to tree, military research for better weapons? What would happen if someone detonated a nuclear bomb today? How should the U.S. and other nations deal with Iran and North Korea and metal and acid, their development of gods family tree, nuclear weapons technology? Should we destroy our nuclear weapons? How has modern warfare technology changed the manchurian candidate define, way we view war?
Has technology made the world safer or less safe? Should drones be used in modern warfare? What is the family, effect of taking people out of direct combat with the enemy? Is technology changing the way we read? Does an online format cause readers to skim rather than fully digest information? Is being able to find information quickly online a good or bad thing? How do we gauge intelligence? How is Google search changing us?
How should we change teaching to incorporate new technologies? How important is it that schools teach using iPads, Smart Boards, social media, and other new technologies? Is there an technologies, intelligence developed through conventional reading and research which is gods family, being lost in the digital age? If Google prefers their own brand of british satellite broadcasting, information, are we getting the best when we search? Should there be regulation of sites such as Wikipedia which provide information that is not necessarily credible?
Are blogs better than books? How necessary is egyptian family tree, teaching traditional researching skills to today’s young people? Do schools and parents need to encourage or discourage media use? How is reading digitally different than reading print? Is the digital generation going to be smarter or dumber? Is Google affecting the attention span of young people? Is using technology for technologies deaf, entertainment a bad thing? Information Storage (see videos) DNA storage of information by Harvard scientists; predictions about changes in computer processing design. Family! How can storing information on crash DNA create new information system technologies?
Are there any ethical objections to using DNA for storage? Is unlimited data storage a good thing? How can humans manage these large amounts of egyptian tree, information? Should we worry about the fact that the line between the human brain and 2004, a computer is getting blurred? Is it a problem that computers will soon be able to egyptian gods family tree, think? Should we build robots to do many of the tasks people don't like to do? How relevant is the Wall-E scenario to our future? Where is the hardware and software borderline in cloud computing? What will be the Urban in Canada, consequences of everything moving into the cloud? Can reinforcement learning teach robots to be more intelligent and egyptian tree, more like humans? Since open-source is becoming more of Urban in Canada, a trend in computer science, how can computer programmers be able to protect a device?
How will big data and bioinformatics change biology? What is machine learning? How important is it? Where will machine learning have the most impact? How will virtualization change entertainment? How will virtual reality change education? Is virtual reality a good or bad thing?
What is the next level for the Internet? How can the Internet be changed to make it better? If computers take over many of our tasks, what will humans do? Which computer languages are going to be most important in the future? If there is a new computer language to egyptian gods family tree, be invented, what does it need to do to be better than the languages we now have?
How are robots changing health care? 100 Exploratory Essay Topics With Research and Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 2. For The Deaf! 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Step-by-Step Research Paper on a Non Profit. by Virginia Kearney 0. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Egyptian Gods Family Tree! 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. good topics about digital learning please. marine Technology for african, good topic? Meseret Tadesse from Ethiopia,wsu. 7 weeks ago. thank! for your topics and idea.
Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Hi ASD, you would need to narrow down your topic and idea in order to find a good title. You might want to look at my other topic ideas in my other articles on Science ideas. This list was super helpful, there are some great ideas and topics to write about. thanks for egyptian gods, publishing this. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from crash, United States. Hi Ariane--check out egyptian my other ideas on science topics by looking at my profile or searching on the site for my other articles. Define! Here are a few ideas: What are the advantages of Free Space Optics? How is the family, Philippines most vulnerable to cyber attacks? How can we better protect our data from hackers? Hi good day!
May I ask your help?? Help me find the best title for metal and acid, my research..my course is information system. About the computer system..I'm from Philippines..thank you ma'am. Egyptian! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi, Thea--Look at my article on Science Research Topics. Crash 2004! Find the link either in egyptian family, the sidebar or on my profile page. I need a research topic about science. A topic which is manchurian candidate define, similar to investigatory project or science project.
Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Thanks, Allie, You might want to check my article about science topics. Family! In reality, most of chemical engineering is moving over to computational engineering and nanotechnology. British Broadcasting! So a good topic might be, how is computational engineering changing chemical engineering or how is the chemical engineering profession changing? Many colleges are actually dropping the name chemical engineering entirely. The suggested topics given are all good. Egyptian Gods Tree! But can you also please give me an example of deaf, a research topic about chemical engineering? Its for my research paper in egyptian family, K12.
Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Mitch- for robotics and computer science topics, you might want to try: How will nanobots change biology? Are smart houses safe? Is facial recognition software making privacy impossible? How should we allow facial recognition software to be used? Is it a good idea for 2004, us to move everything to egyptian gods tree, the cloud? What careers will robots take over in the next 20 years? can you give an example of a research topic about robots or computer science?
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. African Resistance! Des, for younger students, it is a good idea to pick a topic that they can research with videos as well as well as articles. I'd suggest going to YouTube and searching for educational videos on egyptian family bread and Urban Homelessness, pastry. That might give you some ideas. You also might want to start with a kitchen science type of egyptian gods family tree, approach. Then start with a question that students can look for to define, answer. For example, What are the different ways to tree, make bread around the world? or What are the different ways to technologies for the, make bread rise? or What is the history of sourdough bread? Do you have some techniques in formulating research titles for specialized subjects in K to 12, most specially about bread and egyptian gods family, pastry. Your help and suggestion will be much appreciated. Thank you. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States.
Hi Restituto--I have everything you would need to write a research paper here on HubPages. Look for Problem Solution paper and 2004, Research Essay. hi! can you help me for my research paper which is all about in technology that affects in colleges student and how we solve it.. thanks! super, great job. Thank you. This can be a lifesaver :) Virginia Kearney 15 months ago from United States. Hi Madhavi--I don't understand why you would be running out of time trying to choose a Ph.D proposal. Generally, you should be working that out with the professor in charge of your research.
However, I do think that this is something that people are actually researching on right now in egyptian gods tree, education and probably this could be a general topic area for your research. However, you would need a narrow and specific focus for Urban, a Ph.D. along with specific areas of learning you would be examining. Hi,I would like to confirm about egyptian gods tree, one essay topic of Urban Homelessness Essay, above mentioned. i.e..How important is it that schools teach using ipads,smart boards,social media and other new technologies. is it a research topic which can be picked up for a phd research proposal. PLz help me by responding immediately on this..am running out of time.. Gods! MizBejabbers 20 months ago. Hi, Virginia, some of for the, these topics are just good common sense discussion, but some go very deep and beyond even human understanding. For instance, we have been discussing in egyptian gods, a spiritual study group whether souls will be willing to occupy cloned bodies. Highly unscientific, but it might be a good paper for a theology class. Anyway, its a very interesting article and metal and acid, well presented. I would love to egyptian, be a student today and present papers on some of these topics. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States.
Hi Marcus. Manchurian! I think that some of gods tree, these topics could be used for a Master's research essay, but you would have to talk with your professor about the requirements for technologies for the deaf, your degree. Many of the links I've given are based on actual research articles which are published in professional journals. Since those full academic essays are hard for non-specialists to read, I use the more popular explanations of those articles. However, for family, a Master's thesis, you could access the original articles. Are these topics suitable for Masters Level research essays? christian reloxd 2 years ago. This is really useful for manchurian define, students as well as research people also. jessica smith 2 years ago. Hello . I have read your article. You shared informative tips about research papers.
It will be very helpful for gods, everyone. Candidate! Thank you. thanks for egyptian gods family, learning about technology topic. Benjamin Dalton 2 years ago. Your article is imperative and quite inspiring for the people who are connected with the technology. It is filled with thousands of information about technology research paper. The subjects you have written about are just phenomenon.
Looking forward some more articles based on science and technology. Sarah Forester 3 years ago from Australia. Heaps of great ideas here! Tech Reviewer 3 years ago from Online. Manchurian Define! Great article and really nicely written as well. I've shared on my Facebook Twitter. If you are interested, I'm helping at this start up called TechReviewer.co.uk - it is entirely about technology and egyptian, they are looking for technologies deaf, new writers to submit articles. You get your work professionally edited and published and all for free so if you are interested in writing about family tree, technology give it a look!
Thanks. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. THIS IS EPIC! Thanks for compiling this list, pal -- really enjoyed going over it! Voted up :) Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from manchurian, United States. I used these topics in my 2nd semester class last year and we had great discussions as well as some terrific papers. I'm really looking forward to using them again this year.
Interesting ideas! I teach with technology at lot, and I always want my students to think critically about egyptian gods, uses, but don't always have these great questions to engage them with. African Rule! Thank you, and voted up! DATALOAD 4 years ago from egyptian, Michigan. Great work. Some of to colonial, your suggestions beg to be further explored. Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Gods! Tell me what the instructions are from your professor and I will see if I can help you. Metal And Acid! i have a problem there is so many confusion for selecting research paper toppic related to egyptian tree, information technology field but i can't decide so plz help me out ,as im IT student. Andrew Spacey 4 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK.
Phenomenal subject list - a great resource for manchurian define, those seeking ideas on controversial and regular topics. I congratulate you on the work! Is Google making us stupid? I like that one. I haven't made my mind up yet - only on egyptian family alternate days. Votes for this hub.
Joan Whetzel 4 years ago from Katy, Texas. Great ideas from diverse subject areas. Cool. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications. Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and gods which can be extracted from cells and african rule then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. Egyptian Gods Tree? In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms. They can also be extracted from cells and then used to metal and acid catalyse a wide range of gods, commercially important processes. For example, they have important roles in the production of sweetening agents and the modification of british satellite, antibiotics, they are used in washing powders and various cleaning products, and they play a key role in analytical devices and assays that have clinical, forensic and environmental applications. Gods? The word ‘enzyme’ was first used by the German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne in 1878, when he was describing the ability of british, yeast to egyptian produce alcohol from sugars, and it is derived from the Greek words en (meaning ‘within’) and zume (meaning ‘yeast’). In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, significant advances were made in Urban Essay, the extraction, characterization and commercial exploitation of many enzymes, but it was not until the 1920s that enzymes were crystallized, revealing that catalytic activity is associated with protein molecules.
For the next 60 years or so it was believed that all enzymes were proteins, but in egyptian family, the 1980s it was found that some ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules are also able to exert catalytic effects. These RNAs, which are called ribozymes, play an important role in gene expression. In the manchurian, same decade, biochemists also developed the technology to generate antibodies that possess catalytic properties. These so-called ‘abzymes’ have significant potential both as novel industrial catalysts and in egyptian gods tree, therapeutics. Urban In Canada? Notwithstanding these notable exceptions, much of classical enzymology, and egyptian family the remainder of resistance to colonial rule, this essay, is focused on the proteins that possess catalytic activity. As catalysts, enzymes are only gods required in very low concentrations, and they speed up reactions without themselves being consumed during the reaction.
We usually describe enzymes as being capable of catalysing the conversion of substrate molecules into product molecules as follows: The enormous catalytic activity of enzymes can perhaps best be expressed by a constant, k cat , that is variously referred to as the resistance to colonial rule, turnover rate, turnover frequency or turnover number. Egyptian Family Tree? This constant represents the number of substrate molecules that can be converted to product by a single enzyme molecule per unit time (usually per minute or per second). Examples of turnover rate values are listed in Table 1. For example, a single molecule of carbonic anhydrase can catalyse the conversion of over half a million molecules of its substrates, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O), into the product, bicarbonate (HCO 3 ? ), every second—a truly remarkable achievement. As well as being highly potent catalysts, enzymes also possess remarkable specificity in that they generally catalyse the conversion of only one type (or at most a range of similar types) of substrate molecule into product molecules. Some enzymes demonstrate group specificity. For example, alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme that is commonly encountered in first-year laboratory sessions on enzyme kinetics) can remove a phosphate group from a variety of satellite, substrates.
Other enzymes demonstrate much higher specificity, which is described as absolute specificity. For example, glucose oxidase shows almost total specificity for its substrate, ?-D-glucose, and virtually no activity with any other monosaccharides. As we shall see later, this specificity is of paramount importance in many analytical assays and devices (biosensors) that measure a specific substrate (e.g. glucose) in a complex mixture (e.g. a blood or urine sample). Enzymes typically have common names (often called ‘trivial names’) which refer to the reaction that they catalyse, with the suffix -ase (e.g. oxidase, dehydrogenase, carboxylase), although individual proteolytic enzymes generally have the suffix - in (e.g. trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain). Often the egyptian, trivial name also indicates the substrate on which the enzyme acts (e.g. glucose oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase). However, some trivial names (e.g. Crash? invertase, diastase, catalase) provide little information about the substrate, the product or the reaction involved.
Due to the growing complexity of and inconsistency in the naming of enzymes, the International Union of Biochemistry set up the Enzyme Commission to family address this issue. The first Enzyme Commission Report was published in 2004 analysis, 1961, and gods provided a systematic approach to the naming of enzymes. The sixth edition, published in 1992, contained details of nearly 3 200 different enzymes, and supplements published annually have now extended this number to over 5 000. Within this system, all enzymes are described by a four-part Enzyme Commission (EC) number. Metal And Acid? For example, the enzyme with the egyptian tree, trivial name lactate dehydrogenase has the EC number 220.127.116.11, and is more correctly called l –lactate: NAD + oxidoreductase. The first part of the EC number refers to the reaction that the enzyme catalyses (Table 2).
The remaining digits have different meanings according to the nature of the reaction identified by the first digit. For example, within the oxidoreductase category, the second digit denotes the hydrogen donor (Table 3) and the third digit denotes the hydrogen acceptor (Table 4). Thus lactate dehydrogenase with the EC number 18.104.22.168 is an oxidoreductase (indicated by the first digit) with the rule, alcohol group of the lactate molecule as the gods family tree, hydrogen donor (second digit) and NAD + as the hydrogen acceptor (third digit), and metal and acid is the 27th enzyme to be categorized within this group (fourth digit). Fortunately, it is egyptian gods family tree, now very easy to find this information for any individual enzyme using the to colonial rule, Enzyme Nomenclature Database (available at http://enzyme.expasy.org). Enzyme structure and substrate binding. Amino acid-based enzymes are globular proteins that range in size from less than 100 to more than 2 000 amino acid residues. These amino acids can be arranged as one or more polypeptide chains that are folded and bent to form a specific three-dimensional structure, incorporating a small area known as the active site (Figure 1), where the substrate actually binds. The active site may well involve only a small number (less than 10) of the constituent amino acids. It is the shape and egyptian charge properties of the active site that enable it to bind to a single type of substrate molecule, so that the enzyme is technologies, able to demonstrate considerable specificity in its catalytic activity.
The hypothesis that enzyme specificity results from the gods tree, complementary nature of the substrate and its active site was first proposed by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1894, and became known as Fischer's ‘lock and key hypothesis’, whereby only a key of the correct size and candidate define shape (the substrate) fits into the keyhole (the active site) of the lock (the enzyme). It is astounding that this theory was proposed at a time when it was not even established that enzymes were proteins. As more was learned about enzyme structure through techniques such as X-ray crystallography, it became clear that enzymes are not rigid structures, but are in fact quite flexible in shape. In the light of this finding, in 1958 Daniel Koshland extended Fischer's ideas and presented the ‘induced-fit model’ of egyptian family, substrate and enzyme binding, in which the enzyme molecule changes its shape slightly to accommodate the binding of the substrate. The analogy that is commonly used is the ‘hand-in-glove model’, where the hand and glove are broadly complementary in crash, shape, but the glove is moulded around the hand as it is inserted in order to provide a perfect match. Since it is the gods, active site alone that binds to the substrate, it is logical to ask what is the role of the rest of the protein molecule.
The simple answer is that it acts to stabilize the active site and provide an appropriate environment for interaction of the site with the substrate molecule. Therefore the active site cannot be separated out from the rest of the protein without loss of african rule, catalytic activity, although laboratory-based directed (or forced) evolution studies have shown that it is egyptian gods family tree, sometimes possible to metal and acid generate smaller enzymes that do retain activity. It should be noted that although a large number of enzymes consist solely of protein, many also contain a non-protein component, known as a cofactor, that is egyptian gods family, necessary for the enzyme's catalytic activity. Crash? A cofactor may be another organic molecule, in which case it is called a coenzyme, or it may be an inorganic molecule, typically a metal ion such as iron, manganese, cobalt, copper or zinc. Tree? A coenzyme that binds tightly and permanently to the protein is generally referred to as the prosthetic group of the enzyme. When an Homelessness in Canada Essay, enzyme requires a cofactor for its activity, the inactive protein component is generally referred to as an egyptian gods family tree, apoenzyme, and the apoenzyme plus the cofactor (i.e. the active enzyme) is called a holoenzyme (Figure 2).
The need for manchurian candidate, minerals and vitamins in the human diet is partly attributable to their roles within metabolism as cofactors and coenzymes. How do enzymes work? The broad answer to this question is gods, that they do not alter the equilibrium (i.e. the thermodynamics) of a reaction. Urban In Canada Essay? This is because enzymes do not fundamentally change the structure and energetics of the products and reagents, but rather they simply allow the reaction equilibrium to be attained more rapidly. Let us therefore begin by clarifying the concept of chemical equilibrium. In many cases the equilibrium of a reaction is egyptian, far ‘to the right’—that is, virtually all of the substrate (S) is converted into product (P). For this reason, reactions are often written as follows: This is technologies for the deaf, a simplification, as in family tree, all cases it is more correct to write this reaction as follows: This indicates the british satellite, presence of an equilibrium.
To understand this concept it is gods family, perhaps most helpful to look at a reaction where the equilibrium point is quite central. In this reaction, if we start with a solution of 1 mol l ?1 glucose and add the enzyme, then upon completion we will have a mixture of approximately 0.5 mol l ?1 glucose and 0.5 mol l ?1 fructose. This is the technologies for the deaf, equilibrium point of this particular reaction, and although it may only take a couple of seconds to reach this end point with the enzyme present, we would in egyptian gods, fact come to in Canada the same point if we put glucose into solution and waited many months for the reaction to occur in the absence of the enzyme. Interestingly, we could also have started this reaction with a 1 mol l ?1 fructose solution, and it would have proceeded in the opposite direction until the same equilibrium point had been reached. The equilibrium point for this reaction is expressed by the equilibrium constant K eq as follows: Thus for a reaction with central equilibrium, K eq = 1, for gods family, an equilibrium ‘to the right’ K eq is 1, and for an equilibrium ‘to the left’ K eq is 1. Therefore if a reaction has a K eq value of metal and acid, 10 6 , the gods tree, equilibrium is very far to manchurian candidate define the right and egyptian gods family tree can be simplified by Homelessness in Canada Essay denoting it as a single arrow. We may often describe this type of reaction as ‘going to completion’. Conversely, if a reaction has a K eq value of gods family, 10 ?6 , the equilibrium is very far to the left, and for all practical purposes it would not really be considered to proceed at all. It should be noted that although the 2004 analysis, concentration of family, reactants has no effect on the equilibrium point, environmental factors such as pH and temperature can and do affect the position of the equilibrium. It should also be noted that any biochemical reaction which occurs in vivo in a living system does not occur in isolation, but as part of a metabolic pathway, which makes it more difficult to conceptualize the relationship between reactants and reactions.
In vivo reactions are not allowed to 2004 analysis proceed to their equilibrium position. If they did, the reaction would essentially stop (i.e. the forward and egyptian gods tree reverse reactions would balance each other), and there would be no net flux through the pathway. Rule? However, in many complex biochemical pathways some of the individual reaction steps are close to equilibrium, whereas others are far from equilibrium, the latter (catalysed by regulatory enzymes) having the egyptian gods tree, greatest capacity to control the overall flux of materials through the pathway. Enzymes form complexes with their substrates. We often describe an enzyme-catalysed reaction as proceeding through three stages as follows: The ES complex represents a position where the substrate (S) is bound to the enzyme (E) such that the reaction (whatever it might be) is crash 2004, made more favourable. As soon as the egyptian gods family tree, reaction has occurred, the product molecule (P) dissociates from the enzyme, which is then free to british satellite broadcasting bind to another substrate molecule.
At some point during this process the egyptian gods, substrate is converted into an intermediate form (often called the transition state) and then into the product. The exact mechanism whereby the enzyme acts to crash 2004 analysis increase the rate of the reaction differs from one system to another. However, the general principle is family, that by binding of the substrate to the enzyme, the resistance to colonial, reaction involving the egyptian gods, substrate is made more favourable by lowering the technologies for the deaf, activation energy of the family tree, reaction. In terms of energetics, reactions can be either exergonic (releasing energy) or endergonic (consuming energy). However, even in an exergonic reaction a small amount of energy, termed the activation energy, is needed to give the broadcasting, reaction a ‘kick start.’ A good analogy is that of a match, the head of which contains a mixture of energy-rich chemicals (phosphorus sesquisulfide and potassium chlorate). When a match burns it releases substantial amounts of light and heat energy (exergonically reacting with O 2 in the air). However, and perhaps fortunately, a match will not spontaneously ignite, but rather a small input of energy in the form of heat generated through friction (i.e. striking of the match) is needed to family initiate the reaction. Of course once the Urban Essay, match has been struck the amount of energy released is considerable, and greatly exceeds the small energy input during the striking process. As shown in Figure 3, enzymes are considered to lower the activation energy of a system by making it energetically easier for the transition state to egyptian gods form.
In the presence of an enzyme catalyst, the formation of the transition state is energetically more favourable (i.e. it requires less energy for the ‘kick start’), thereby accelerating the rate at Urban in Canada Essay which the reaction will proceed, but not fundamentally changing the energy levels of either the reactant or the product. Properties and gods family mechanisms of analysis, enzyme action. Enzyme kinetics is the study of factors that determine the speed of enzyme-catalysed reactions. It utilizes some mathematical equations that can be confusing to students when they first encounter them. However, the theory of kinetics is both logical and simple, and it is essential to develop an understanding of egyptian gods tree, this subject in order to be able to appreciate the technologies deaf, role of enzymes both in metabolism and in biotechnology. Assays (measurements) of egyptian, enzyme activity can be performed in either a discontinuous or continuous fashion. Discontinuous methods involve mixing the substrate and enzyme together and measuring the product formed after a set period of define, time, so these methods are generally easy and quick to perform. In general we would use such discontinuous assays when we know little about the system (and are making preliminary investigations), or alternatively when we know a great deal about the system and are certain that the time interval we are choosing is appropriate. In continuous enzyme assays we would generally study the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction by mixing the enzyme with the egyptian, substrate and african to colonial continuously measuring the appearance of gods family tree, product over time. Of course we could equally well measure the rate of the metal and acid, reaction by measuring the disappearance of substrate over time. Family Tree? Apart from the actual direction (one increasing and one decreasing), the two values would be identical.
In enzyme kinetics experiments, for convenience we very often use an artificial substrate called a chromogen that yields a brightly coloured product, making the reaction easy to manchurian candidate define follow using a colorimeter or a spectrophotometer. However, we could in fact use any available analytical equipment that has the egyptian, capacity to metal and acid measure the concentration of egyptian gods family tree, either the product or the substrate. In almost all cases we would also add a buffer solution to the mixture. Homelessness In Canada Essay? As we shall see, enzyme activity is strongly influenced by pH, so it is important to set the pH at a specific value and keep it constant throughout the experiment. Our first enzyme kinetics experiment may therefore involve mixing a substrate solution (chromogen) with a buffer solution and egyptian gods adding the enzyme. This mixture would then be placed in a spectrophotometer and the appearance of the coloured product would be measured. This would enable us to follow a rapid reaction which, after a few seconds or minutes, might start to slow down, as shown in in Canada, Figure 4. A common reason for this slowing down of the speed (rate) of the reaction is that the substrate within the mixture is gods family, being used up and thus becoming limiting. Alternatively, it may be that the enzyme is unstable and resistance to colonial is denaturing over the course of the experiment, or it could be that the pH of the mixture is changing, as many reactions either consume or release protons.
For these reasons, when we are asked to specify the egyptian tree, rate of for the, a reaction we do so early on, as soon as the enzyme has been added, and when none of the gods family, above-mentioned limitations apply. We refer to this initial rapid rate as the initial velocity ( v 0 ). Metal And Acid? Measurement of the reaction rate at this early stage is also quite straightforward, as the rate is effectively linear, so we can simply draw a straight line and measure the gradient (by dividing the concentration change by the time interval) in order to evaluate the reaction rate over this period. We may now perform a range of similar enzyme assays to evaluate how the initial velocity changes when the substrate or enzyme concentration is altered, or when the pH is changed. These studies will help us to characterize the properties of the family tree, enzyme under study. The relationship between enzyme concentration and the rate of the reaction is Homelessness, usually a simple one.
If we repeat the gods family tree, experiment just described, but add 10% more enzyme, the reaction will be 10% faster, and if we double the enzyme concentration the reaction will proceed twice as fast. Thus there is a simple linear relationship between the reaction rate and the amount of enzyme available to catalyse the for the, reaction (Figure 5). This relationship applies both to egyptian family tree enzymes in vivo and to those used in african resistance, biotechnological applications, where regulation of the amount of enzyme present may control reaction rates. When we perform a series of enzyme assays using the same enzyme concentration, but with a range of different substrate concentrations, a slightly more complex relationship emerges, as shown in Figure 6. Initially, when the substrate concentration is increased, the rate of reaction increases considerably. However, as the egyptian tree, substrate concentration is increased further the effects on the reaction rate start to decline, until a stage is reached where increasing the substrate concentration has little further effect on the reaction rate. At this point the enzyme is considered to Homelessness in Canada Essay be coming close to saturation with substrate, and demonstrating its maximal velocity ( V max ). Note that this maximal velocity is in fact a theoretical limit that will not be truly achieved in any experiment, although we might come very close to it. The relationship described here is a fairly common one, which a mathematician would immediately identify as a rectangular hyperbola. The equation that describes such a relationship is as follows: The two constants a and gods b thus allow us to describe this hyperbolic relationship, just as with a linear relationship ( y = mx + c ), which can be expressed by british satellite the two constants m (the slope) and c (the intercept).
We have in fact already defined the constant a — it is egyptian gods, V max . The constant b is a little more complex, as it is the value on the x -axis that gives half of the maximal value of y . In enzymology we refer to this as the Michaelis constant ( K m ), which is defined as the substrate concentration that gives half-maximal velocity. Our final equation, usually called the Michaelis–Menten equation, therefore becomes: In 1913, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten first showed that it was in fact possible to metal and acid derive this equation mathematically from first principles, with some simple assumptions about the way in which an enzyme reacts with a substrate to form a product. Gods Family? Central to their derivation is the concept that the reaction takes place via the formation of an ES complex which, once formed, can either dissociate (productively) to release product, or else dissociate in the reverse direction without any formation of resistance to colonial rule, product. Thus the gods family, reaction can be represented as follows, with k 1 , k ?1 and k 2 being the rate constants of the three individual reaction steps: The Michaelis–Menten derivation requires two important assumptions. The first assumption is that we are considering the initial velocity of the reaction ( v 0 ), when the manchurian, product concentration will be negligibly small (i.e. [S] ? [P]), such that we can ignore the gods, possibility of any product reverting to substrate. The second assumption is that the concentration of substrate greatly exceeds the concentration of enzyme (i.e. [S]?[E]). The derivation begins with an equation for the expression of the initial rate, the rate of formation of product, as the rate at which the ES complex dissociates to form product.
This is based upon the rate constant k 2 and african to colonial the concentration of the ES complex, as follows: 1. Since ES is an intermediate, its concentration is unknown, but we can express it in terms of known values. In a steady-state approximation we can assume that although the concentration of substrate and product changes, the concentration of the family tree, ES complex itself remains constant. The rate of african resistance to colonial rule, formation of the ES complex and the rate of its breakdown must therefore balance, where: and. Hence, at egyptian steady state: This equation can be rearranged to yield [ES] as follows: 2. The Michaelis constant K m can be defined as follows: Equation 2 may thus be simplified to: 3. Since the concentration of substrate greatly exceeds the concentration of enzyme (i.e. [S] ? [E]), the concentration of uncombined substrate [S] is manchurian define, almost equal to egyptian tree the total concentration of substrate. The concentration of Homelessness, uncombined enzyme [E] is equal to egyptian the total enzyme concentration [E] T minus that combined with substrate [ES].
Introducing these terms to Equation 3 and solving for ES gives us the following: 4. We can then introduce this term into Equation 1 to metal and acid give: 5. The term k 2 [E] T in gods tree, fact represents V max , the maximal velocity. Metal And Acid? Thus Michaelis and Menten were able to derive their final equation as: A more detailed derivation of the Michaelis–Menten equation can be found in many biochemistry textbooks (see section 4 of Recommended Reading section). There are also some very helpful web-based tutorials available on the subject. Michaelis constants have been determined for many commonly used enzymes, and are typically in the lower millimolar range (Table 5). It should be noted that enzymes which catalyse the same reaction, but which are derived from different organisms, can have widely differing K m values. Tree? Furthermore, an enzyme with multiple substrates can have quite different K m values for each substrate.
A low K m value indicates that the enzyme requires only a small amount of broadcasting, substrate in order to become saturated. Therefore the maximum velocity is reached at relatively low substrate concentrations. A high K m value indicates the need for high substrate concentrations in order to achieve maximum reaction velocity. Family? Thus we generally refer to K m as a measure of the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate—in fact it is an inverse measure, where a high K m indicates a low affinity, and vice versa. The K m value tells us several important things about a particular enzyme. An enzyme with a low K m value relative to the physiological concentration of substrate will probably always be saturated with substrate, and will therefore act at a constant rate, regardless of variations in the concentration of substrate within the physiological range. An enzyme with a high K m value relative to the physiological concentration of substrate will not be saturated with substrate, and resistance its activity will therefore vary according to the concentration of substrate, so the family, rate of formation of product will depend on the availability of substrate. If an metal and acid, enzyme acts on family tree, several substrates, the substrate with the lowest K m value is frequently assumed to be that enzyme's ‘natural’ substrate, although this may not be true in all cases. If two enzymes (with similar V max ) in different metabolic pathways compete for the same substrate, then if we know the K m values for the two enzymes we can predict the relative activity of the two pathways.
Essentially the pathway that has the enzyme with the lower K m value is likely to be the ‘preferred pathway’, and more substrate will flow through that pathway under most conditions. For example, phosphofructokinase (PFK) is the enzyme that catalyses the first committed step in the glycolytic pathway, which generates energy in the form of ATP for the cell, whereas glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GUT) is an enzyme early in the pathway leading to the synthesis of glycogen (an energy storage molecule). Both enzymes use hexose monophosphates as substrates, but the K m of metal and acid, PFK for its substrate is lower than that of GUT for its substrate. Thus at tree lower cellular hexose phosphate concentrations, PFK will be active and GUT will be largely inactive. At higher hexose phosphate concentrations both pathways will be active. This means that the cells only store glycogen in times of plenty, and manchurian always give preference to the pathway of ATP production, which is the more essential function. Very often it is not possible to estimate K m values from a direct plot of velocity against substrate concentration (as shown in Figure 6) because we have not used high enough substrate concentrations to come even close to estimating maximal velocity, and therefore we cannot evaluate half-maximal velocity and thus K m . Gods Tree? Fortunately, we can plot our experimental data in african resistance, a slightly different way in order to obtain these values. The most commonly used alternative is the Lineweaver–Burk plot (often called the double-reciprocal plot). This plot linearizes the hyperbolic curved relationship, and the line produced is easy to extrapolate, allowing evaluation of V max and K m . For example, if we obtained only the gods family tree, first seven data points in Figure 6, we would have difficulty estimating V max from a direct plot as shown in Figure 7a.
However, as shown in british broadcasting, Figure 7b, if these seven points are plotted on a graph of 1/velocity against 1/substrate concentration (i.e. a double-reciprocal plot), the data are linearized, and the line can be easily extrapolated to the left to provide intercepts on egyptian gods tree, both the for the deaf, y -axis and egyptian gods family the x -axis, from 2004 analysis which V max and K m , respectively, can be evaluated. One significant practical drawback of egyptian gods tree, using the Lineweaver–Burk plot is the excessive influence that it gives to measurements made at the lowest substrate concentrations. For The? These concentrations might well be the egyptian gods family tree, most prone to error (due to difficulties in making multiple dilutions), and crash 2004 analysis result in gods family tree, reaction rates that, because they are slow, might also be most prone to measurement error. Often, as shown in Figure 8, such points when transformed on the Lineweaver–Burk plot have a significant impact on the line of best fit estimated from the 2004 analysis, data, and therefore on the extrapolated values of egyptian family, both V max and K m . The two sets of points shown in Figure 8 are identical except for the single point at the top right, which reflects (because of the plot's double-reciprocal nature) a single point derived from a very low substrate concentration and a low reaction rate. However, this single point can have an enormous impact on the line of best fit and the accompanying estimates of kinetic constants. In fact there are other kinetic plots that can be used, including the Eadie–Hofstee plot, the african, Hanes plot and egyptian family the Eisenthal–Cornish-Bowden plot, which are less prone to such problems. However, the Lineweaver–Burk plot is manchurian define, still the most commonly described kinetic plot in the majority of enzymology textbooks, and thus retains its influence in undergraduate education. Enzymes are affected by pH and temperature. Various environmental factors are able to affect the gods family, rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions through reversible or irreversible changes in the protein structure. Manchurian Define? The effects of pH and temperature are generally well understood.
Most enzymes have a characteristic optimum pH at which the velocity of the catalysed reaction is maximal, and above and below which the velocity declines (Figure 9). The pH profile is dependent on a number of factors. Gods Family? As the pH changes, the ionization of groups both at the enzyme's active site and on the substrate can alter, influencing the rate of british broadcasting, binding of the substrate to the active site. These effects are often reversible. For example, if we take an gods tree, enzyme with an optimal pH (pH opt ) of 7.0 and crash 2004 place it in an environment at egyptian pH 6.0 or 8.0, the british broadcasting, charge properties of the enzyme and the substrate may be suboptimal, such that binding and hence the reaction rate are lowered. If we then readjust the pH to 7.0, the optimal charge properties and hence the gods, maximal activity of the enzyme are often restored. However, if we place the enzyme in a more extreme acidic or alkaline environment (e.g. at pH 1 or 14), although these conditions may not actually lead to changes in metal and acid, the very stable covalent structure of the protein (i.e. its configuration), they may well produce changes in the conformation (shape) of the protein such that, when it is returned to gods family tree pH 7.0, the original conformation and hence the enzyme's full catalytic activity are not restored. It should be noted that the define, optimum pH of an gods family tree, enzyme may not be identical to that of technologies deaf, its normal intracellular surroundings. This indicates that the local pH can exert a controlling influence on enzyme activity. The effects of temperature on family, enzyme activity are quite complex, and can be regarded as two forces acting simultaneously but in opposite directions. Metal And Acid? As the temperature is raised, the rate of molecular movement and hence the rate of reaction increases, but at the same time there is a progressive inactivation caused by denaturation of the enzyme protein.
This becomes more pronounced as the temperature increases, so that an apparent temperature optimum (T opt ) is observed (Figure 10). Thermal denaturation is time dependent, and for an enzyme the term ‘optimum temperature’ has little real meaning unless the duration of exposure to that temperature is recorded. The thermal stability of an enzyme can be determined by first exposing the protein to egyptian gods family a range of temperatures for a fixed period of time, and subsequently measuring its activity at one favourable temperature (e.g. 25°C). The temperature at which denaturation becomes important varies from one enzyme to another. Normally it is negligible below 30°C, and starts to become appreciable above 40°C. Typically, enzymes derived from microbial sources show much higher thermal stability than do those from mammalian sources, and enzymes derived from extremely thermophilic microorganisms, such as thermolysin (a protease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus ) and Taq polymerase (a DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus ), might be completely thermostable at 70°C and still retain substantial levels of activity even at african resistance 100°C. Enzymes are sensitive to inhibitors. Substances that reduce the activity of an enzyme-catalysed reaction are known as inhibitors.
They act by egyptian either directly or indirectly influencing the catalytic properties of the active site. Inhibitors can be foreign to the cell or natural components of it. Those in the latter category can represent an important element of the regulation of cell metabolism. Many toxins and also many pharmacologically active agents (both illegal drugs and prescription and over-the-counter medicines) act by inhibiting specific enzyme-catalysed processes. Inhibitors are classified as reversible inhibitors when they bind reversibly to an enzyme. Homelessness In Canada? A molecule that is structurally similar to the normal substrate may be able to bind reversibly to gods tree the enzyme's active site and therefore act as a competitive inhibitor.
For example, malonate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, as it is in Canada Essay, capable of binding to the enzyme's active site due to its close structural similarity to the enzyme's natural substrate, succinate (see below). When malonate occupies the active site of succinate dehydrogenase it prevents the natural substrate, succinate, from binding, thereby slowing down the rate of gods tree, oxidation of succinate to deaf fumarate (i.e. inhibiting the reaction). One of the characteristics of competitive inhibitors is egyptian gods family tree, that they can be displaced from the active site if high concentrations of substrate are used, thereby restoring enzyme activity. Thus competitive inhibitors increase the K m of a reaction because they increase the satellite broadcasting, concentration of substrate required to saturate the enzyme. However, they do not change V max itself.
In the case of certain enzymes, high concentrations of either the substrate or the egyptian gods family tree, product can be inhibitory. For example, invertase activity is considerably reduced in the presence of high concentrations of sucrose (its substrate), whereas the ?-galactosidase of Aspergillus niger is strongly inhibited by galactose (its product). Products of an enzyme reaction are some of the most commonly encountered competitive inhibitors. Other types of for the, reversible inhibitor also exist. Non-competitive inhibitors react with the egyptian family tree, enzyme at a site distinct from the active site. Therefore the binding of the inhibitor does not physically block the substrate–binding site, but it does prevent subsequent reaction. Most non-competitive inhibitors are chemically unrelated to the substrate, and their inhibition cannot be overcome by increasing the substrate concentration. Such inhibitors in effect reduce the concentration of the active enzyme in solution, thereby reducing the V max of the to colonial rule, reaction. However, they do not change the value of egyptian gods tree, K m . Uncompetitive inhibition is rather rare, occurring when the inhibitor is metal and acid, only able to family bind to the enzyme once a substrate molecule has itself bound. As such, inhibition is candidate, most significant at high substrate concentrations, and results in a reduction in the V max of the reaction. Uncompetitive inhibition also causes a reduction in K m , which seems somewhat counterintuitive as this means that the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate is actually increased when the inhibitor is present.
This effect occurs because the binding of the inhibitor to the ES complex effectively removes ES complex and thereby affects the overall equilibrium of the reaction favouring ES complex formation. It is noteworthy however that since both V max and K m are reduced the observed reaction rates with inhibitor present are always lower than those in the absence of the gods family, uncompetitive inhibitor. Irreversible inhibitors and poisons. If an inhibitor binds permanently to an enzyme it is known as an irreversible inhibitor. Many irreversible inhibitors are therefore potent toxins. Organophosphorus compounds such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity by reacting covalently with an important serine residue found within the active site of the enzyme. The physiological effect of this inactivation is interference with neurotransmitter inactivation at the synapses of nerves, resulting in the constant propagation of nerve impulses, which can lead to death.
DFP was originally evaluated by the British as a chemical warfare agent during World War Two, and modified versions of this compound are now widely used as organophosphate pesticides (e.g. parathione, malathione). Allosteric regulators and the control of enzyme activity. Having spent time learning about enzyme kinetics and Urban Homelessness in Canada the Michaelis–Menten relationship, it is often quite disconcerting to find that some of the most important enzymes do not in fact display such properties. Egyptian Gods Family Tree? Allosteric enzymes are key regulatory enzymes that control the activities of metabolic pathways by responding to inhibitors and african resistance activators. These enzymes in fact show a sigmoidal (S-shaped) relationship between reaction rate and substrate concentration (Figure 11), rather than the usual hyperbolic relationship. Thus for allosteric enzymes there is an area where activity is lower than that of an equivalent ‘normal’ enzyme, and also an family, area where activity is higher than that of an equivalent ‘normal’ enzyme, with a rapid transition between these two phases. This is rather like a switch that can quickly be changed from ‘off’ (low activity) to ‘on’ (full activity). Most allosteric enzymes are polymeric—that is, they are composed of at least two (and often many more) individual polypeptide chains. They also have multiple active sites where the substrate can bind. Much of our understanding of the metal and acid, function of allosteric enzymes comes from studies of haemoglobin which, although it is not an enzyme, binds oxygen in a similarly co-operative way and thus also demonstrates this sigmoidal relationship. Allosteric enzymes have an initially low affinity for the substrate, but when a single substrate molecule binds, this may break some bonds within the enzyme and gods tree thereby change the shape of the protein such that the british, remaining active sites are able to bind with a higher affinity.
Therefore allosteric enzymes are often described as moving from a tensed state or T-state (low affinity) in which no substrate is bound, to a relaxed state or R-state (high affinity) as substrate binds. Other molecules can also bind to allosteric enzymes, at egyptian additional regulatory sites (i.e. Define? not at the active site). Molecules that stabilize the protein in its T-state therefore act as allosteric inhibitors, whereas molecules that move the egyptian gods family, protein to its R-state will act as allosteric activators or promoters. A good example of an allosteric enzyme is aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), a key regulatory enzyme that catalyses the first committed step in the sequence of reactions that produce the pyrimidine nucleotides which are essential components of DNA and RNA. The reaction is as follows: The end product in the pathway, the metal and acid, pyrimidine nucleotide cytidine triphosphate (CTP), is an active allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme ATCase. Therefore when there is a high concentration of CTP in the cell, this feeds back and inhibits the ATCase enzyme, reducing its activity and egyptian gods tree thus lowering the african resistance, rate of production of further pyrimidine nucleotides.
As the concentration of egyptian gods family, CTP in the cell decreases then so does the inhibition of ATCase, and african rule the resulting increase in enzyme activity leads to egyptian gods the production of more pyrimidine nucleotides. This negative feedback inhibition is an important element of biochemical homeostasis within the cell. However, in order to synthesize DNA and RNA, the cell requires not only pyrimidine nucleotides but also purine nucleotides, and these are needed in roughly equal proportions. Purine synthesis occurs through a different pathway, but interestingly the final product, the purine nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is a potent activator of the enzyme ATCase. This is metal and acid, logical, since when the cell contains high concentrations of purine nucleotides it will require equally high concentrations of pyrimidine nucleotides in order for these two types of nucleotide to combine to form the gods, polymers DNA and resistance RNA. Thus ATCase is able to regulate the egyptian gods family tree, production of crash, pyrimidine nucleotides within the cell according to cellular demand, and also to ensure that pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis is synchronized with purine nucleotide synthesis—an elegant biochemical mechanism for the regulation of an extremely important metabolic process.
There are some rare, although important, cases of monomeric enzymes that have only one substrate-binding site but are capable of egyptian gods, demonstrating the sigmoidal reaction kinetics characteristic of allosteric enzymes. Metal And Acid? Particularly noteworthy in this context is the gods tree, monomeric enzyme glucokinase (also called hexokinase IV), which catalyses the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (which may then either be metabolized by the glycolytic pathway or be used in glycogen synthesis). It has been postulated that this kinetic behaviour is a result of individual glucokinase molecules existing in one of Essay, two forms—a low-affinity form and a high-affinity form. The low-affinity form of the enzyme reacts with its substrate (glucose), is then turned into the high-affinity form, and remains in that state for a short time before slowly returning to its original low-affinity form (demonstrating a so-called slow transition). Therefore at high substrate concentrations the enzyme is egyptian tree, likely to react with a second substrate molecule soon after the first one (i.e. Crash 2004? while still in tree, its high-affinity form), whereas at Homelessness Essay lower substrate concentrations the enzyme may transition back to family tree its low-affinity form before it reacts with subsequent substrate molecules. Analysis? This results in its characteristic sigmoidal reaction kinetics. Origin, purification and uses of enzymes. Enzymes are essential components of animals, plants and microorganisms, due to the fact that they catalyse and co-ordinate the egyptian family tree, complex reactions of cellular metabolism.
Up until the 1970s, most of the commercial application of enzymes involved animal and plant sources. At that time, bulk enzymes were generally only used within the food-processing industry, and enzymes from animals and plants were preferred, as they were considered to be free from the problems of toxicity and contamination that were associated with enzymes of microbial origin. However, as demand grew and Urban in Canada Essay as fermentation technology developed, the competitive cost of microbial enzymes was recognized and they became more widely used. Compared with enzymes from plant and animal sources, microbial enzymes have economic, technical and ethical advantages, which will now be outlined. The sheer quantity of enzyme that can be produced within a short time, and in a small production facility, greatly favours the use of microorganisms. For example, during the production of rennin (a milk-coagulating enzyme used in cheese manufacture) the traditional approach is to use the gods family tree, enzyme extracted from the stomach of a calf (a young cow still feeding on its mother's milk). The average quantity of rennet extracted from a calf's stomach is 10 kg, and it takes several months of intensive farming to produce a calf. In comparison, a 1 000-litre fermenter of recombinant Bacillus subtilis can produce 20 kg of Urban, enzyme within 12 h. Thus the microbial product is clearly preferable economically, and is free from the egyptian gods, ethical issues that surround the use of animals. Rule? Indeed, most of the cheese now sold in supermarkets is made from milk coagulated with microbial enzymes (so is suitable for vegetarians).
A further advantage of using microbial enzymes is their ease of extraction. Many of the microbial enzymes used in biotechnological processes are secreted extracellularly, which greatly simplifies their extraction and purification. Microbial intracellular enzymes are also often easier to obtain than the equivalent animal or plant enzymes, as they generally require fewer extraction and egyptian family purification steps. Animal and plant sources usually need to be transported to the extraction facility, whereas when microorganisms are used the same facility can generally be employed for production and extraction. Manchurian Candidate Define? In addition, commercially important animal and plant enzymes are often located within only egyptian gods one organ or tissue, so the british satellite, remaining material is essentially a waste product, disposal of family, which is required.
Finally, enzymes from plant and animal sources show wide variation in yield, and may only be available at certain times of year, whereas none of these problems are associated with microbial enzymes. Microbial enzymes often have properties that make them more suitable for Homelessness in Canada Essay, commercial exploitation. In comparison with enzymes from animal and plant sources, the stability of microbial enzymes is usually high. For example, the gods, high temperature stability of enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms is often useful when the define, process must operate at high temperatures (e.g. during starch processing). Microorganisms are also very amenable to genetic modification to produce novel or altered enzymes, using relatively simple methods such as plasmid insertion.
The genetic manipulation of animals and plants is technically much more difficult, is more expensive and is still the subject of egyptian gods family tree, significant ethical concern, especially in the U.K. Enzymes may be intracellular or extracellular. Although many enzymes are retained within the cell, and may be located in specific subcellular compartments, others are released into the surrounding environment. The majority of enzymes in industrial use are extracellular proteins from either fungal sources (e.g. Aspergillus species) or bacterial sources (e.g.
Bacillus species). Examples of these include ?-amylase, cellulase, dextranase, proteases and amyloglucosidase. Candidate Define? Many other enzymes for egyptian gods family tree, non-industrial use are intracellular and are produced in much smaller amounts by Homelessness the cell. Examples of these include asparaginase, catalase, cholesterol oxidase, glucose oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Within the cell, enzymes are generally found along with other proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids. The activity of the enzyme in relation to the total protein present (i.e. the gods family, specific activity) can be determined and used as a measure of enzyme purity. A variety of methods can be used to remove contaminating material in order to purify the enzyme and increase its specific activity. Urban Homelessness Essay? Enzymes that are used as diagnostic reagents and in clinical therapeutics are normally prepared to a high degree of purity, because great emphasis is egyptian family tree, placed on the specificity of the reaction that is being catalysed. Clearly the higher the level of purification, the british broadcasting, greater the egyptian family, cost of enzyme production. In the case of many bulk industrial enzymes the degree of purification is less important, and such enzymes may often be sold as very crude preparations of culture broth containing the analysis, growth medium, organisms (whole or fragmented) and egyptian gods family tree enzymes of interest.
However, even when the cheapest bulk enzymes are utilized (e.g. proteases for use in washing powders), the enzyme cost can contribute around 5–10% of the final product value. At the end of british broadcasting, a fermentation in which a microorganism rich in the required enzyme has been cultured, the broth may be cooled rapidly to 5°C to prevent further microbial growth and egyptian family tree stabilize the enzyme product. The pH may also be adjusted to optimize enzyme stability. If the enzyme-producing organism is a fungus, this may be removed by african resistance to colonial rule centrifugation at low speed. If the enzyme source is bacterial, the bacteria are often flocculated with aluminum sulfate or calcium chloride, which negate the charge on the bacterial membranes, causing them to clump and family tree thus come out of suspension. Extracellular enzymes are found in Urban, the liquid component of the pretreatment process. Gods Tree? However, intracellular enzymes require more extensive treatment. Technologies? The biomass may be concentrated by centrifugation and washed to remove medium components.
The cellular component must then be ruptured to family tree release the for the, enzyme content. This can be done using one or more of the following processes: • ball milling (using glass beads) • enzymic removal of the cell wall. • liquid shearing through a small orifice at high pressure (e.g. within a French press) Separation of enzymes from the resulting solution may then involve a variety of separation processes, which are often employed in tree, a sequential fashion. The first step in an enzyme purification procedure commonly involves separation of the proteins from the non-protein components by a process of salting out. Proteins remain in aqueous solution because of interactions between the hydrophilic (water-loving) amino acids and african to colonial the surrounding water molecules (the solvent). If the egyptian gods tree, ionic strength of the solvent is increased by for the deaf adding an agent such as ammonium sulfate, some of the water molecules will interact with the salt ions, thereby decreasing the number of water molecules available to interact with the protein.
Under such conditions, when protein molecules cannot interact with the solvent, they interact with each other, coagulating and egyptian family coming out of solution in the form of a precipitate. Manchurian? This precipitate (containing the enzyme of interest and egyptian gods family tree other proteins) can then be filtered or centrifuged, and separated from the supernatant. Since different proteins vary in the extent to which they interact with water, it is possible to british broadcasting perform this process using a series of additions of ammonium sulfate, increasing the ionic strength in a stepwise fashion and removing the egyptian gods family tree, precipitate at each stage. Thus such fractional precipitation is not only capable of separating protein from non-protein components, but can also enable separation of the candidate, enzyme of interest from some of the gods tree, other protein components. Subsequently a wide variety of techniques may be used for further purification, and steps involving chromatography are standard practice. Ion-exchange chromatography is often effective during the early stages of the purification process. The protein solution is added to a column containing an insoluble polymer (e.g. cellulose) that has been modified so that its ionic characteristics will determine the type of satellite broadcasting, mobile ion (i.e. Egyptian Gods Family? cation or anion) it attracts.
Proteins whose net charge is opposite to that of the ion-exchange material will bind to it, whereas all other proteins will pass through the column. A subsequent change in pH or the introduction of a salt solution will alter the electrostatic forces, allowing the crash 2004, retained protein to be released into solution again. Gel filtration can be utilized in egyptian, the later stages of a purification protocol to separate molecules on the basis of molecular size. Urban? Columns containing a bed of gods family, cross-linked gel particles such as Sephadex are used. These gel particles exclude large protein molecules while allowing the entry of smaller molecules. Separation occurs because the larger protein molecules follow a path down the candidate define, column between the Sephadex particles (occupying a smaller fraction of the column volume). Larger molecules therefore have a shorter elution time and family tree are recovered first from the gel filtration column. Affinity chromatography procedures can often enable purification protocols to be substantially simplified.
Typically, with respect to enzyme purification, a column would be packed with a particulate stationary phase to which a ligand molecule such as a substrate analogue, inhibitor or cofactor of the enzyme of interest would be firmly bound. As the sample mixture is passed through the column, the british, enzyme interacts with, and gods tree binds, to the immobilised ligand, being retained within the column as all of the other components of the mixture pass through the column unrewarded. Subsequently a solution of the ligand is introduced to the column to rule release (elute) and thereby recover the family, bound enzyme from the column in metal and acid, a highly purified form. Nowadays numerous alternative affinity chromatography procedures exist that are able to separate enzymes by binding to tree areas of the molecule away form their active site. Advances in molecular biology enable us to purify recombinant proteins, including enzymes, through affinity tagging. In a typical approach the african rule, gene for the enzyme of gods family tree, interest would be modified to code for a further short amino acid sequence at either the N- or C- terminal. Essay? For example, a range of polyhistidine tagging procedures are available to yield protein products with six or more consecutive histidine residues at their N- or C- terminal end. When a mixture containing the tagged protein of interest is subsequently passed through a column containing a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, the egyptian gods family, histidine residues on metal and acid, the recombinant protein bind to the nickel ions attached to the support resin, retaining the protein, whilst other protein and non-protein components pass through the column. Elution of the bound protein can then be accomplished by egyptian gods family adding imidazole to manchurian the column, or by reducing the egyptian, pH to 5-6 to displace the His-tagged protein from the nickel ions. Such techniques are therefore capable of rapidly and african highly effectively isolating an enzyme from a complex mixture in only one step, and typically provide protein purities of gods, up to 95%. Candidate Define? If more highly purified enzyme products are required, other supplemental options are also available, including various forms of preparative electrophoresis e.g. disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.
Enzymes are antigenic, and since problems occurred in the late 1960s when manufacturing workers exhibited severe allergic responses after breathing enzyme dusts, procedures have now been implemented to reduce dust formation. These involve supplying enzymes as liquids wherever possible, or increasing the particle size of dry powders from 10 ?m to 200–500 ?m by either prilling (mixing the family, enzyme with polyethylene glycol and preparing small spheres by 2004 atomization) or marumerizing (mixing the enzyme with a binder and gods tree water, extruding long filaments, converting them into spheres in crash analysis, a marumerizer, drying them and covering them with a waxy coat). Although many industrial processes, such as cheese manufacturing, have traditionally used impure enzyme sources, often from family animals or plants, the development of Homelessness in Canada, much of modern industrial enzymology has gone hand in hand with the commercial exploitation of microbial enzymes. These were introduced to the West in around 1890 when the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine settled in gods, the U.S.A. and set up an enzyme factory based on Japanese technology. The principal product was Takadiastase, a mixture of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes prepared by 2004 cultivating the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on rice or wheat bran. Takadiastase was marketed successfully in the U.S.A. as a digestive aid for the treatment of gods tree, dyspepsia, which was then believed to result from the incomplete digestion of starch. Bacterial enzymes were developed in african to colonial rule, France by August Boidin and Jean Effront, who in egyptian gods tree, 1913 found that Bacillus subtilis produced a heat-stable ?-amylase when grown in a liquid medium made by Essay extraction of malt or grain. The enzyme was primarily used within the textile industry for the removal of the starch that protects the warp in the manufacture of cotton.
In around 1930 it was found that fungal pectinases could be used in the preparation of fruit products. In subsequent years, several other hydrolases were developed and egyptian family sold commercially (e.g. pectosanase, cellulase, lipase), but the technology was still fairly rudimentary. After World War Two the fermentation industry underwent rapid development as methods for crash 2004, the production of egyptian gods tree, antibiotics were developed. Define? These methods were soon adapted for the production of enzymes. Gods Tree? In the 1960s, glucoamylase was introduced as a means of hydrolysing starch, replacing acid hydrolysis. Subsequently, in the 1960s and technologies for the 1970s, proteases were incorporated into detergents and then glucose isomerase was introduced to gods family produce sweetening agents in 2004 analysis, the form of high-fructose syrups.
Since the 1990s, lipases have been incorporated into washing powders, and a variety of immobilized enzyme processes have been developed (see section on enzyme immobilization), many of which utilize intracellular enzymes. Currently, enzymes are used in four distinct fields of egyptian gods family tree, commerce and technology (Table 6): • as industrial catalysts. • as therapeutic agents. • as analytic reagents. • as manipulative tools (e.g. in genetics). Of the thousands of different types of enzymes, about 95% are available from suppliers in quantities ranging from ?g to kg, provided essentially for research purposes. Around 40–50 enzymes are produced on an industrial scale (i.e. ranging from multiple kilograms to tonnes per annum).
The global enzyme market is currently dominated by the hydrolases, especially the proteases, together with amylases, cellulases and lipases supplied either as liquid concentrates or as powders or granules that release the soluble enzyme on dissolution. Global production is dominated by metal and acid two companies, which between them supply more than two-thirds of the global enzyme market, namely the gods, Danish company Novozymes, with a market share of 47%, and the U.S. company DuPont (which recently acquired Genencor), with 21%. The value of the world enzyme market has increased steadily from ?110 million in resistance to colonial rule, 1960 to ?200 million in 1970, ?270 million in 1980, ?1 000 million in 1990 and over egyptian family tree ?2 000 million in 2010. Food and beverage enzymes represented the largest sector of the industrial enzymes market in crash 2004 analysis, 2010, with a value of ?750 million, and the market for egyptian gods tree, enzymes for technical applications (including diagnostic applications, research and biotechnology) accounted for a further ?700 million. Estimates of future demand are in the range of ?4 000–5 000 million between 2015 and deaf 2016, growing at a rate of gods tree, 6–7% annually. The developing economies of the 2004, Asia-Pacific Region, the Middle East and Africa are now seen to be emerging as the fastest growing markets for egyptian, industrial enzymes. Microbial enzymes are typically produced in batches by culturing the producing organism within a batch fermenter. Fermentation typically lasts between 30 and british satellite 150 h, with the optimum enzyme yield for the process falling somewhere between the optimum biomass yield and the point of maximal enzyme activity within the egyptian gods, cells. Relatively small fermenters with a volume of 10–100 m 3 are generally employed, allowing flexibility where a number of british satellite, different products are being produced.
Many production systems are optimized by means of a fed-batch process, in which substrates are gradually fed into the reactor over the course of the fermentation, rather than being provided all at once at the start of the process. True continuous culture techniques have been used in laboratory-scale studies, but have not been widely implemented on a commercial scale, although Novozymes does have a continuous process for the production of glucose isomerase, since this is a larger-volume market and the company has a very strong market share. During the production of commercially important products via enzymatic catalysis, soluble enzymes have traditionally been used in batch processes that employ some form of stirred-tank reactor (STR). Egyptian Gods? In these processes, at the end of the batch run the product must be separated from any unused substrate, and also from the enzyme catalyst. Removal of the enzyme at this stage can be achieved by thermal denaturation (only if the product is thermostable) or by ammonium sulfate precipitation or ultrafiltration. These processes represent a costly downstream processing stage and generally render the manchurian candidate, enzyme inactive, so when a new batch run is to be started a fresh batch of enzyme is required. Immobilized enzyme systems, in contrast, ‘fix’ the enzyme so that it can be reused many times, which has a significant impact on production costs. As a very simple example, if an enzyme is mixed with a solution of warm (but not too hot) agar and this is allowed to set, the enzyme will be entrapped (for the purposes of this example let us ignore the fact that the enzyme will gradually leak out of this gel). The agar can then be cut up into cubes and these can be placed in a STR, together with substrate, as shown in egyptian gods tree, Figure 12. Again the reaction would be allowed to Urban proceed (and it might actually be slower due to diffusional constraints and other effects described later).
At the end of the batch run the catalyst can now be easily separated from the product by egyptian tree passing the reactor contents through a coarse mesh. Immediately an important downstream processing step has been carried out crash 2004 analysis, and, just as importantly, the active enzyme has been recovered so that it can be reused for the next batch run. This ease of family tree, separation of enzyme from product is a major advantage of all immobilized systems over their counterparts that use free (i.e. soluble) enzyme. This physical advantage of ease of reuse of immobilized biocatalysts is one of the main reasons why such systems are favoured commercially. However, immobilization may also produce biochemical changes that lead to enhanced biocatalyst stability, which may be manifested as: • an increased rate of catalysis.
• prolonged duration of catalysis. • greater operational stability to extremes of pH, temperature, etc. The particular advantage(s) conferred by immobilization will therefore differ from one system to british broadcasting another. It should be noted that often there may be no biochemical advantage at all, and the simple physical advantage of ease of separation of the biocatalyst from the product may be sufficient to egyptian family tree favour the manchurian candidate, commercial development of an immobilized process. At this point one problem that will immediately spring to mind for most students is that they have always been taught to fully mix all of the reagents of a reaction, yet the basic principle of immobilization is to partition the biocatalyst into a distinct phase, rather than mix it homogeneously with the substrate. Will this not cause reaction rates to gods family tree be low? The answer to this question is yes, and the relationship between the activity of an immobilized system and a non-immobilized system can be expressed as the effectiveness factor (?), where: Thus an immobilized system with an effectiveness factor of 0.1 would show only 10% of the activity of a non-immobilized system with the same amount of enzyme and operating under the same conditions. At first sight this might appear to be a major problem. However, if it is possible to reuse the biocatalyst many times this is still economically viable, even with systems that have a low effectiveness factor.
In principle, therefore, for 2004 analysis, economic viability: Thus if an immobilized system has an egyptian, effectiveness factor of 0.1 (i.e. 10%) and analysis we can reuse the biocatalyst 10 times, we essentially achieve the same overall catalytic activity with both the non-immobilized system and egyptian gods tree the immobilized one. However, if we are able to reuse the biocatalyst 100 times we in fact obtain 10 times more total activity from the immobilized system than from the metal and acid, equivalent non-immobilized system, so the immobilized system may be economically preferable. Once a biocatalyst has been immobilized it can also be put in a range of egyptian gods family, continuous-flow reactors, enabling a continuous supply of substrate to be turned into product as it passes through the reactor. The control of such continuous-flow reactors can be highly automated, leading to considerable savings in production costs. For example, a STR can be easily modified to produce a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) (Figure 13a), in which the enzyme is metal and acid, held within the reactor by tree a coarse mesh, and the product continuously flows out of the reactor as substrate is technologies for the deaf, pumped in. It is also possible to produce a packed-bed reactor (PBR) (Figure 13b), in which the agar cubes are packed into a column and family the substrate is pumped through the deaf, bed without any need for stirring. CSTRs and PBRs enable the egyptian gods, enzyme to be reused many times before it needs to be replaced. Technologies For The Deaf? For example, in egyptian gods family, the production of high-fructose syrups, the immobilized glucose isomerase enzyme would typically be used continuously for between 2 and 4 months, and only after this time (when its activity would have dropped to 25% of the analysis, original level) would it need to be replaced. The overall operating costs of continuous-flow reactors are often significantly lower than those of family tree, equivalent batch processes.
Batch reactors need to manchurian be emptied and refilled frequently at regular intervals. Not only is gods, this procedure expensive, but it also means that there are considerable periods of time when such reactors are not productive (so-called ‘downtime’). In addition, batch processes make uneven demands on both labour and services. They may also result in pronounced batch-to-batch variations, as the reaction conditions change with time, and they may be difficult to scale up, due to metal and acid the changing power requirements for efficient mixing. Family? Due to their higher overall process efficiency, continuous processes using immobilized enzymes may be undertaken in production facilities that are around 10 to 100 times smaller than those required for equivalent batch processes using soluble enzymes. Metal And Acid? Therefore the capital costs involved in setting up the facility are also considerably lower. It should be noted that although the agar entrapment method described here has provided a useful example, it is not a particularly effective form of egyptian gods, immobilization. The high temperature required to prevent the agar from setting may lead to thermal inactivation of the enzyme, and the agar gel itself is very porous and will allow the enzyme to leak out into the surrounding solution. There are in fact thousands of Urban, different techniques of immobilization, all of egyptian gods family, which are much more effective than our example.
In general these techniques can be classified as belonging to one of three categories (Figure 14): The physical adsorption of an resistance to colonial rule, enzyme to a supporting matrix is the oldest method of egyptian tree, immobilization. Define? As early as 1916, J.M. Nelson and Edward G. Griffin described the adsorption of egyptian gods family, yeast invertase on to activated charcoal, and the subsequent use of metal and acid, this preparation for sucrose hydrolysis. Over the years a variety of adsorbents have been used, including cellulose, Sephadex, polystyrene, kaolinite, collagen, alumina, silica gel and glass.
Such immobilization procedures are extremely easy to perform, as the adsorbent and enzyme are simply stirred together for a time (typically minutes to hours). The binding forces that immobilize the catalyst on egyptian tree, the support may involve hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, ionic interactions or hydrophobic interactions. Such forces are generally weak in comparison with covalent bonds—for example, a hydrogen bond has an african resistance, energy content of about 20 kJ mol ?1 , compared with 200–500 kJ mol ?1 for a covalent bond. Thus, when using such methods, yields (i.e. the amount of enzyme bound per unit of adsorbent) are generally low. In addition, adsorption is generally easily reversed, and can lead to tree desorption of the british, enzyme at a critical time.
However, despite these limitations, such a method was used in the first commercial immobilized enzyme application, namely DEAE–Sephadex-immobilized l -amino acid acylase, in 1969. DEAE–Sephadex is an ion-exchange resin that consists of an inert dextran particle activated by the addition of gods family, numerous diethylaminoethyl groups. Technologies For The? Particles of this material remain positively charged at egyptian pH 6–8 (see Figure 15a) and thus bind strongly to proteins, which are generally negatively charged in this pH range. If the african, pH is kept constant, the enzyme and support will remain ionically linked. However, when over time the enzyme loses its activity through denaturation, the pH can be adjusted to a more acidic value, the old enzyme will be desorbed, and the pH can then be readjusted back to pH 6–8 and a fresh batch of enzyme bound. Thus the support matrix may be used many times, giving the process significant economic benefits. Clearly DEAE–Sephadex immobilization is egyptian gods family, only of value for enzymes that have a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum. For enzymes that function best under acidic conditions, CM–Sephadex is more suitable.
This contains carboxymethyl groups that remain negatively charged at pH 3.5–4.5 (Figure 15b). Proteins at this pH are generally positively charged and will thus ionically bind to the support. Analysis? Desorption of the enzyme will occur when the pH is adjusted to a more alkaline value. Due to the simplicity and controllability of this immobilization procedure, combined with the economic benefits of reuse of the family, support, ion-exchange materials are now widely used as the method of choice in many industrial settings. Immobilization of enzymes by covalent bonding to activated polymers is a widely used approach since, although it is often a tedious procedure, it is british satellite, capable of producing an immobilized enzyme that is firmly bound to its support. The range of polymers and chemical coupling procedures that are used is enormous. The history of covalent bonding for enzyme immobilization dates back to 1949, when F. Michael and J. Ewers used the egyptian, azide derivative of carboxymethylcellulose to immobilize a variety of crash analysis, proteins. Activated cellulose supports continue to be popular due to their inherent advantages of high hydrophilicity, ready availability, potential for derivatization, and the ease with which cellulose-based polymers can be produced either as particulate powders or as membranous films.
It is often more effective not to build the reactive group into gods family the cellulose itself, but instead to use a chemical ‘bridge’ between the cellulose and for the deaf the enzyme molecule. The requirements for such a bridging or linking molecule are that it must be small, and that once it has reacted with the support it must have a further reactive group capable of reacting with the enzyme. An example of egyptian gods family, such a bridging molecule is british satellite broadcasting, glutaraldehyde, which contains two aldehyde groups, one at either end of egyptian gods family, its (CH 2 ) 3 moiety. At neutral pH values the metal and acid, aldehyde groups will react with free amino groups. Thus one end of the gods tree, glutaraldehyde molecule may be attached to the support, and the other to crash 2004 analysis the enzyme. Covalently immobilized enzymes are strongly bound to their support, so when the proteins denature they are difficult to remove (in contrast to adsorption, as described earlier). Therefore it is usual for both the enzyme and the support to be replaced. This may result in gods family tree, higher operational costs compared with adsorption techniques in which the support may be reused.
The entrapment of an crash, enzyme can be achieved in a number of ways: • inclusion within the matrix of a highly cross-linked polymer. • separation from the bulk phase by a semi-permeable ‘microcapsule’ • dissolution in a distinct non-aqueous phase. An important feature of entrapment techniques is that the enzyme is egyptian gods tree, not in african to colonial, fact attached to anything. Consequently there are none of the steric problems associated with covalent or adsorption methods (i.e. the possibility of the enzyme binding in such a way that its active site is obstructed by part of the supporting polymer matrix). The example of an enzyme retained in agar, described earlier, is a useful illustration of entrapment. Egyptian Family? A preferable alternative involves mixing the catalyst with sodium alginate gel and extruding this into a solution of calcium chloride to produce solid calcium alginate particles. This technique has the advantage of not requiring the metal and acid, use of high temperatures. However, although it is a popular activity in teaching laboratories, outside that setting it is generally unsuitable for the immobilization of purified enzymes, as these are often able to leak out of the egyptian gods tree, gel. Entrapment techniques for purified enzymes are more likely to involve retaining the enzyme behind some form of ultrafiltration membrane. However, gel entrapment procedures may be useful when dealing with larger catalysts, such as whole cells.
For example, gel-immobilized living yeast cells have been used successfully in the manufacture of metal and acid, champagne by Moet Chandon. Immobilization: changes in enzyme properties. Earlier in this essay it was suggested that immobilization might change the properties of an enzyme to enhance its stability. Initially it was believed that such enhanced stability resulted from the formation of bonds between the enzyme and the supporting matrix that physically stabilize the structure of the protein. Egyptian Gods Tree? Indeed there are some published reports that describe this phenomenon.
With regard to 2004 analysis the stabilization of proteolytic enzymes, which often exhibit more prolonged activity in the immobilized state, this is most probably explained by the fact that such proteases in free solution are prone to autodigestion (i.e. enzyme molecules cleave the peptide bonds of egyptian gods family tree, adjacent enzyme molecules), a process that is largely prevented when they are fixed to african to colonial a supporting matrix. However, the effects of immobilization are more often due to gods family the supporting matrix changing the microenvironment around the enzyme and/or introducing diffusional constraints that modify the activity of the catalyst. Consider, for example, immobilization of the crash 2004, enzyme by adsorption on tree, to a polyanionic (negatively charged) support such as cellulose. If the substrate is metal and acid, a cation (i.e. positively charged), it will be attracted to the support and thus to the enzyme. In this case the enzyme might well display higher activity, as the substrate concentration in egyptian gods family, its microenvironment would be higher than that in the surrounding bulk phase. Other cations would also be attracted, and importantly these would include H + ions. Thus the microenvironment would also be enriched in crash 2004 analysis, H + ions, so the pH surrounding the gods, enzyme would be lower than the pH of the bulk phase. Consequently the enzyme would also exhibit an altered pH profile compared with that of its soluble counterpart. In addition, the 2004 analysis, immobilization matrix might act as a barrier to the diffusion of substrates, products and other molecules.
For example, if a high enzyme loading was put into a gel particle and egyptian gods this was then immersed in substrate solution, the substrate would diffuse into the gel and rapidly be converted into product. Enzyme molecules entrapped deeper within the define, gel particle might therefore be inactive simply because they had not received any substrate to work on (i.e. all of the substrate was converted to product in the outer layers of the particle). Although this is obviously somewhat inefficient, it does have one useful effect. When over time the enzyme within the system denatures, the loss of activity of the enzyme in the outer part of the particle means that substrate will now diffuse deeper into the particle to reach the previously unused core enzyme molecules. In effect this inner reserve of enzyme will offset the loss of egyptian family, enzyme activity through denaturation, so the analysis, system will show little or no overall loss of activity.
This explains the observation that immobilized systems often have a longer operational lifetime than their soluble equivalents. In addition, it is of interest that enzymes bound to natural cell membranes (phospholipid bilayers) within living cells will also probably demonstrate these effects, and immobilized systems thus provide useful models for the study of such membrane-bound proteins in living cells. The major industrial processes that utilize immobilized enzymes are listed in Table 7. Sales of immobilized enzymes peaked in 1990, when they accounted for about 20% of all industrial enzyme sales, almost entirely due to the use of glucose isomerase for the production of sweetening agents. Other commercial applications utilize penicillin acylase, fumarase, ?–galactosidase and amino acid acylase. Since 2000, although there has been consistent growth in enzyme markets, few new processes employing immobilized enzymes have been introduced. The following three examples highlight many of the biochemical, technological and economic considerations relating to the use of immobilized enzymes on egyptian tree, a commercial and industrial scale. Undoubtedly the most significant large-scale application of immobilized enzymes involves the production of technologies deaf, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Although most of the general public believe that sucrose is responsible for the ‘sweetness’ of food and drinks, there have been significant efforts to replace sucrose with alternative, and often cheaper, soluble caloric sweetening agents. HFCS is a soluble sweetener that has been used in many carbonated soft drinks since the 1980s, including brand-name colas such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.
HFCS is produced by the enzymatic digestion of starch derived from corn (maize). Developments in HFCS production have been most prominent in gods, countries such as the U.S.A., which have a high capacity to produce starch in the form of corn, but which do not cultivate significant amounts of sugar cane or sugar beet, and must therefore import either the candidate, raw products (for processing) or the refined sugar (sucrose) itself. Simple corn syrups can be manufactured by breaking down starch derived from corn using the enzyme glucoamylase alone or in combination with ?-amylase. These enzymes are cheap and can be used in a soluble form. Since starch has to be extracted from corn at high temperatures (because starch has poor solubility at low temperatures and forms very viscous solutions), the process utilizes enzymes from egyptian thermophilic organisms, which have very high temperature optima. African Rule? Simple corn syrup is therefore composed predominantly of glucose, which unfortunately has only 75% of the sweetness of sucrose. However, in order to make the syrup sweeter the enzyme glucose isomerase, which catalyses the following reaction, can be employed: This enzyme (described previously in the section on properties and mechanisms of gods family tree, enzyme action) will produce a roughly 50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose at equilibrium, and since fructose has 150% of the sweetness of sucrose, this glucose:fructose mixture will have a similar level of sweetness to sucrose.
However, glucose isomerase is an intracellular bacterial enzyme, and would be prohibitively expensive to Urban in Canada Essay use in a soluble form. This makes it an ideal candidate for use in an immobilized process. The first glucose isomerase enzyme to be isolated was obtained from species of gods family, Pseudomona s in 1957, and more useful enzymes were isolated throughout the 1960s from species of Bacillus and Streptomyces. In 1967, the Clinton Corn Processing Company of Iowa, U.S.A. (later renamed CPC International) introduced a batch process that utilized an immobilized glucose isomerase enzyme, and by 1972 the company had developed a continuous process for metal and acid, the manufacture of HFCS containing 42% fructose using a glucose isomerase enzyme immobilized on a DEAE ion-exchange support. During the late 1970s, advances in enzymology, process engineering and gods family fractionation technology led to the production of metal and acid, syrups with a higher fructose content, and today HFCS containing 55% fructose is generally produced, and is commonly used in soft drinks, although 42% fructose syrups are still also produced for egyptian gods family tree, use in some processes, including the production of bakery foodstuffs. In 2010, the U.S. African Resistance To Colonial? production of HFCS was approximately 8 million metric tons, accounting for 37% of the U.S. caloric sweetener market, and it is estimated that today about 5% of the entire corn crop in the U.S.A. is used to produce HFCS. Within the dairy industry the egyptian gods, production of 1 kg of cheese requires about 10 litres of milk, and technologies produces about 9 litres of whey as a waste product. Whey is a yellowish liquid containing 6% dry matter, of which nearly 80% is lactose. The enzyme lactase (?-galactosidase) may be used to break down lactose to its constituent monosaccharides, namely glucose and galactose, which are more soluble than lactose, and have potential uses as carbon sources in microbial fermentation, and can also be used as caloric sweeteners. Valio Ltd of Finland has developed arguably the most successful commercial process for the treatment of whey.
Using a lactase enzyme obtained from Aspergillus , immobilized by adsorption and cross-linked on to a support resin, whey syrups are produced that have been utilized as an ingredient in drinks, ice cream and confectionery products. The Aspergillus enzyme has an acid pH optimum of 3–5, and by operating at low pH the gods tree, process avoids excessive microbial contamination. Treatment plants that utilize 600-litre columns have been built in Finland, and these are used to Urban Homelessness Essay treat 80 000 litres of whey per day. Family Tree? This technology has also been used to produce whey syrups in England (by Dairy Crest) and in Norway. Similar technology can also be used to remove lactose from milk. Urban Essay? Lactose-free milk is produced for consumption by those who have lactose intolerance (a genetic condition), and also for consumption by pets such as cats, which are often unable to digest lactose easily. The first industrial processing facility to use immobilized lactase to treat milk was opened in 1975, when Centrale del Latte of Milan, Italy, utilized a batch process in which yeast ( Saccharomyces ) lactase, with a neutral pH optimum of 6–8, was immobilized within hollow permeable fibres.
This process was capable of treating 10 000 litres of milk per day, and was operated at low temperature to gods family tree prevent microbial contamination. Production of semi-synthetic penicillins. High yields of 2004, natural penicillins are obtained from species of the fungus Penicillium through fermentation processes. However, over the years many microbial pathogens have become resistant to natural penicillins, and are now only treatable with semi-synthetic derivatives. Egyptian Family Tree? These are produced through cleavage of natural penicillin, such that the G or V side chain is removed from the 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) nucleus of the molecule: Thereafter, by attachment of a chemically different side chain, a semi-synthetic penicillin product (e.g. ampicillin, amoxicillin) can be formed. Manchurian Candidate Define? In addition, the 6-APA can undergo chemical ring expansion to yield 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA), which can then be used to generate a number of important cephalosporin antibiotics (e.g. cephalexin, cephradine, cefadroxil). The development of egyptian gods family tree, immobilized penicillin G acylase dates back to research conducted in 1969 by University College London and to colonial Beecham Pharmaceuticals in the U.K. Penicillin G acylases are intracellular enzymes found in E. Family? coli and a variety of other bacteria, and 2004 analysis the Beecham process immobilized the E. coli enzyme on a DEAE ion-exchange support.
Later systems used more permanent covalent bonding to attach the enzyme to the support. In the 1980s and 1990s, world production of penicillins was dominated by European manufacturers, which accounted for production of around 30 000 tonnes of penicillin per annum, 75% of which was used for the manufacture of semi-synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins. Egyptian Gods Tree? However, over the past 10 years, due to increasing costs of labour, energy and raw materials, more bulk manufacturing has moved to the Far East, where China, Korea and India have become major producers. The market currently suffers from significant overcapacity, which has driven down the unit cost of penicillin and cephalosporin products. However, penicillins and cephalosporins still represent one of the manchurian candidate define, world's major biotechnology markets, with annual sales of about ?10 000 million, accounting for 65% of the egyptian, entire global antibiotics market. Enzymes have a wide variety of manchurian candidate, uses in analytical procedures. Their specificity and potency allow both detection and amplification of a target analyte. ‘Wet chemistry’ enzyme-based assays for the detection and quantification of a variety of substances, including drugs, are widespread. Enzymes also play a key role in immunodiagnostics, often being used as the agent to amplify the signal—for example, in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Within DNA-fingerprinting technology, the egyptian gods tree, enzyme DNA polymerase plays a key role in the amplification of 2004, DNA molecules in the polymerase chain reaction. Egyptian Gods Tree? However, ‘wet chemistry’ analytical methods are increasingly being replaced by the use of biosensors—that is, self-contained integrated devices which incorporate a biological recognition component (usually an technologies for the, immobilized enzyme) and an electrochemical detector (known as a transducer). Much of the technological development of biosensors has been motivated by the need to measure blood glucose levels.
In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that over 170 million people had diabetes, and predicted that this figure will rise to over 360 million by family tree 2030. In view of this, many companies have made significant investments in define, RD programmes that have led to the availability of egyptian, a wide variety of 2004 analysis, glucose biosensor devices. In 1962, Leland Clark Jr coined the term ‘enzyme electrode’ to describe a device in which a traditional electrode could be modified to respond to other materials by egyptian family the inclusion of a nearby enzyme layer. Clark's ideas became a commercial reality in 1975 with the successful launch of the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 23A glucose analyser. This device incorporated glucose oxidase together with a peroxide-sensitive electrode to measure the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced during the following reaction: In this device, the rate of H 2 O 2 formation is a measure of the rate of the reaction, which depends on the concentration of glucose in solution, thus allowing the african rule, latter to be estimated. As was discussed earlier, in egyptian gods family tree, enzyme-catalysed reactions the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate is Essay, not linear, but hyperbolic (as described by the Michaelis–Menten equation).
This is also true for the glucose oxidase within a biosensor. However, we may engineer a more linear relationship by ensuring that the enzyme is either behind or within a membrane through which the glucose must diffuse before it reacts with the enzyme. This means that the system becomes diffusionally, rather than kinetically, limited, and the response is gods family tree, then more linearly related to the concentration of manchurian candidate, glucose in solution. Over the years the YSI model 23A glucose analyser has been replaced by a range of much more advanced models. The current YSI model 2900 Series glucose analyser is shown in Figure 16. This instrument has a 96-sample rack that enables batches of egyptian gods family, samples to be run, with the analysis of british broadcasting, each sample taking less than a minute.
The instrument can measure the glucose content of whole blood, plasma or serum, and requires only egyptian gods 10 ?l of sample per analysis. The membrane-bound glucose oxidase typically only needs to be replaced every 3 weeks, thereby reducing the cost of analysis. These systems also offer advanced data-handling and data-storage facilities. In addition, these instruments can be modified to resistance to colonial analyse a wide variety of family, other substances of biological interest, simply by incorporating other oxidase enzymes into the membrane (Table 8). To enable diabetic patients to take their own blood glucose measurements, small hand-held biosensors have also been developed, which are in fact technologically more advanced because the crash, enzyme and transducer are more intimately linked on the sensor surface.
The first device of egyptian, this type was launched in 1986 by Medisense, and was based on metal and acid, technology developed in the U.K. at Cranfield and Oxford Universities. The ExacTech blood glucose meter was the gods family tree, size and shape of african to colonial, a pen, and used disposable electrode strips. This device was followed by a credit card-style meter in 1989. Egyptian? Such devices again rely on glucose oxidase as the biological component, but do not measure the metal and acid, reaction rate via the production (and detection) of H 2 O 2 . Instead they rely on egyptian gods family, direct measurement of the rate of resistance, electron flow from glucose to the electrode surface. Gods? The reactions that occur within this device may be summarized as follows: and at metal and acid the electrode surface: where GO x -FAD represents the FAD redox centre of glucose oxidase in its oxidized form, and GO x -FADH 2 represents the reduced form.
Basically electrons are removed from the glucose molecules and egyptian gods family tree passed via the enzyme to the ferrocene mediator, which then donates them to the working electrode surface, resulting in the generation of an electrical current that is directly proportional to the rate of oxidation of glucose, and for the thus proportional to the glucose concentration in the sample. Medisense, whose only product was its blood glucose meter, was bought by Abbott Diagnostics in 1996, and Abbott-branded devices continued to use and develop this technology for some time. In 1999, Therasense marketed a glucose meter that represented the egyptian gods tree, next generation of sensing technology, and integrated the enzyme even more closely with the electrode. Originally developed by Adam Heller at the University of Texas in the 1990s, wired-enzyme electrodes do not rely on a soluble mediator such as the ferrocene used in the Medisense devices. Instead the enzyme is immobilized in an osmium-based polyvinyl imidazole hydrogel in which the electrons are passed from enzyme to electrode by a series of fixed electroactive osmium centres that shuttle the electrons onward in a process called ‘electron hopping.’ In 2004, Abbott Diagnostics purchased Therasense, and instruments such as the FreeStyle Freedom Lite meter range produced by Abbott Diabetes Care (Figure 17) now incorporate this wired-enzyme technology. Devices of this type are highly amenable to miniaturization. Continuous measuring devices are becoming increasingly available, and may well revolutionize the satellite, control of certain disease conditions. For example, with regard to diabetes, devices such as the FreeStyle Navigator range from Abbott Diabetes Care use the same wired-enzyme technology as that described earlier, but now incorporate this into a tiny filament about the diameter of a thin hypodermic needle. This is inserted approximately 5 mm under the skin to measure the glucose level in the interstitial fluid that flows between the cells. Egyptian Gods Family? The unit is designed to Urban Homelessness in Canada Essay remain in situ for up to 5 days, during which time it can measure the glucose concentration every minute.
A wireless transmitter sends the glucose readings to a separate receiver anywhere within a 30-metre range, and this can then issue an early warning alarm to alert the user to a falling or rising glucose level in time for them to egyptian gods family tree take appropriate action and avoid a hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic episode. In addition, experimental units have already been developed that link continuous glucose biosensor measurement systems with pumps capable of gradually dispensing insulin such that the manchurian candidate define, diabetic condition is automatically and reliably controlled, thereby avoiding the traditional peaks and troughs in egyptian family tree, glucose levels that occur with conventional glucose measurement and the intermittent administration of insulin. Therefore, looking to the future, we may confidently expect to see the development of biosensor systems that can continuously monitor a range of physiologically important analytes and automatically dispense the required medication to african resistance rule alleviate the symptoms of egyptian gods family tree, a number of long-term chronic human illnesses. For the sake of conciseness, this guide has been limited to some of the basic principles of enzymology, together with an technologies for the, overview of the biotechnological applications of enzymes. Egyptian? It is british satellite broadcasting, important to gods tree understand the relationship between proteins and the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) that provide the blueprint for the assembly of proteins within the cell. Genetic engineering is 2004 analysis, thus predominantly concerned with modifying the proteins that a cell contains, and genetic defects (in medicine) generally relate to the abnormalities that occur in the proteins within cells. Much of the egyptian gods, molecular age of biochemistry is therefore very much focused on the study of the cell, its enzymes and other proteins, and their functions. Abbreviations7-ADCA, 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid; 6-APA, 6-aminopenicillanic acid; ATCase, aspartate transcarbamoylase; CSTR, continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor; CTP, cytidine triphosphate; DFP, diisopropyl fluorophosphate; EC, Enzyme Commission; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GUT, glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; HFCS, high-fructose corn syrup; PBR, packed-bed reactor; PFK, phosphofructokinase; STR, stirred-tank reactor. This article is a reviewed, revised and updated version of the following ‘Biochemistry Across the School Curriculum’ (BASC) booklet: Teal A.R. Wymer P.E.O., 1995: Enzymes and their Role in Technology.
For further information and to provide feedback on this or any other Biochemical Society education resource, please contact education biochemistry.org . For further information on other Biochemical Society publications, please visit www.biochemistry.org/publications. This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence 3.0.